Revised edition copyright 1985, Ian Chadwick. All rights reserved.
Previous edition copyright 1983 by Irata Press, Ltd. Michael Reichmann, Publisher.
Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the United States Copyright Act without the permission ot the copyright owner is unlawful.
Printed in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4
We do not accept any responsibility for any damage done to the reader’s programs through use or misuse of the information presented here. Readers are advised to read the warning in the introduction with regard to saving critical programs and removing important disks or cassettes before attempting to use this manual.
The author and publisher have made every effort in the preparation of this book to insure the accuracy of the programs and information. However, the information and programs in this book are sold without warranty, either express or implied. Neither the author nor COMPUTE! Publications, Inc. will be liable for any damages caused or alleged to be caused directly, indirectly, incidentally, or consequentially by the programs or information in this book
COMPUTE! Publications, Inc., Post Office Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403 (919) 275-9809, is part of ABC Consumer Magazines, Inc., one of the ABC Publishing Companies, and is not associated with any manufacturer of personal computers. Atari 400, 800, 1200XL, 600XL, 800XL, 65XE, and 130XE are trademarks of Atari, Inc
In the past two years, many people have written to me about Mapping—mostly complimentary. I was gratified that no serious errors were uncovered, only a few typos and minor corrections—a tribute to COMPUTE!’s editing skills. There are too many people to mention everyone, but I appreciate the efforts of you, the readers; please continue to write to me, even if I can’t answer every letter.
Special thanks to Joe Miller of Koala Technologies (previously with Atari, author of the Translator disk, and frequent CompuServe user), Matt Ratcliff (remote sysop on the Gateway BBS), Randy Tjin of Atari Canada, Neil Harris and Richard Frick of Atari USA for technical support, Bill Wilkinson for the frequent mentions in COMPUTE! magazine, Gary Yost of Antic, and my friend Yoram Rostas for his incessant prodding and poking into the machine. Also to Atari for its “open system” policy which helped make this book possible.
The Atari SIG on CompuServe has been a great help and support; it may be the best source of information and public domain software for the Atari presently available. If you haven’t used CompuServe, I highly recommend that you do so; the sysop, Ron Luks, and his group run a super online operation. Ron helped me gather some of this information by putting up a special message asking for suggestions and answers to questions I had.
Most of all, I owe an immeasurable amount of love, gratitude, and affection to the ever-patient Susan McCallan, my constant companion these past two-plus. How she stands me, I’ve never quite figured out, but I hope she continues to do so for a long time. This book is for her.
Since the first edition, OSS has released an excellent new language, Action!, as well as a considerably superior BASIC—BASIC XL. Action! is probably the best language yet for the Atari; it’s a bit like C and Pascal, with a dash of Forth. I recommend it. (Russ Wetmore wrote Atari HomePak in Action!. Even the Commodore 64 version was written in Action! on the Atari.) Many Action! utilities and programs are available on CompuServe’s Atari SIG as well.
Too many magazine articles have been published since the original edition to cross-reference all of them, but Bill Wilkinson’s “Insight: Atari” in COMPUTE! magazine, Paul Swanson’s “From Here to Atari” in Micro, plus articles in Analog, Antic, Creative Computing, and ROM have all provided their share of information. Atari’s own magazine, Atari Explorer, also has many useful articles, especially for novice programmers
As for books, The Programmer’s Reference Guide for the Atari 400/800 computers by David Heiserman (Howard Sams, 1984) is a good “single volume” reference. Mark Chasin’s Assembly Language Programming for the Atari Computers (McGraw-Hill, 1984) is highly recommended; it provides many excellent examples strictly for Atari users, explaining such difficult concepts as I/O, handlers, and VBIs. Carl Evans’s Atari BASIC Faster and Better (IJG, 1983) is an excellent technique book for BASIC programmers who want to improve their style and learn some machine language.
Jerry White, well-known Atari software author, coauthored a good compendium with Gary Phillips called The Atari User’s Encyclopedia (The Book Company, 1984). Linda Schreiber’s Advanced Programming Techniques for Your Atari (Tab, 1983) has several good routines for graphics and strings in BASIC.
COMPUTE! Books has published several good books, including COMPUTE!’s Third Book of Atari, COMPUTE!’s First and Second Book of Atari Graphics, and COMPUTE!’s First Book of Atari Games. A real hacker’s delight is The Atari BASIC Sourcebook, by Bill Wilkinson, Kathleen O’Brien, and Paul Laughton, which includes the entire source code for Atari BASIC—a must for serious BASIC users (along with Wilkinson’s Inside Atari DOS). One of COMPUTE!’s best books recently is Richard Mansfield’s Machine Language for Beginners, a painless way to introduce yourself to machine language programming.
Finally, for the real hardware buff, Atari once published their 400-800 Home Computer Field Service Manual (part # FD 100001); it has a wealth of data, schematics, parts lists, diagnostic tests, and assembly information, It’s hard to get, but worth it. An 800XL Field Service Manual is also available. Sams has released an excellent hardware technical service manual for the 800 and 800XL, it’s expensive, but contains material any hardware hacker needs to know.
It looks like the Atari will have a long life; it’s already into its third generation (all compatible). I’m glad to see that the recent change in ownership did not spell the end of my favorite home computer, but rather Jack Tramiel is continuing to support and develop it as well as maintain compatibility between models. I’m looking forward to seeing his new 68000-based ST machines.
What exactly is a memory map? It is a guide to the memory locations in your computer. A memory location is one of 65536 storage places called bytes in which a number is stored. Each of these bytes holds a number for programs, data, color, sound, system operation, or is empty (i.e., has a zero in it), waiting for you to fill it with your own program.
Each byte is composed of eight bits, each of which can be either a one (on) or a zero (off). The alterable area of memory you use for your programs is called the Random Access Memory (RAM), while the area used by the Atari to run things is called the Read Only Memory (ROM). Although some of the memory locations in the special Atari chips were designed to be written to like the RAM, the rest of the ROM, including the Operating System ROM, cannot be altered by you since it contains routines such as the floating point mathematics package and the input/output routines.
I hope that the reader is familiar enough with his or her Atari to understand some of these rudimentary uses of a memory map. It is not the scope of this manual to fully explain how to use PEEK and POKE statements; refer to your BASIC manual. Briefly, however, PEEK allows you to look at the value stored in any one memory location. If you want that value to be printed to the screen, you must preface the PEEK statement with a PRINT statement such as:
If you haven’t changed your color registers, this will return the number 40 to your screen. All bytes in the Atari can hold a number between zero and 255. POKE allows you to place a value into a byte, such as:
By doing this you will have turned your text upside down! You can return it to normal by:
Similarly, POKE 710,80 will turn your screen dark purple! As with PEEK, POKE can only involve numbers between zero and 255. You will not be able to POKE into most of the ROM locations since the numbers in many of them are “hard-wired,” “burned” into the chip, and cannot be changed in this manner.
So how does the Atari (or other eight-bit microcomputers, for that matter) store a number larger than 255? By breaking it down into two parts; the Most Significant Byte (MSB), which is the number divided by 256 and rounded down to the nearest whole number, and the Least Significant Byte (LSB), which is the original number minus the MSB. The Atari knows to multiply the MSB by 256 and add the LSB to get the number. For example, the number 45290 is stored as two parts: 234 (LSB) and 176 (MSB). 176 times 256 equals 45056, plus 234 equals 45290
The Atari uses the convention of storing addresses in the LSB/MSB manner in memory (i.e., the smaller part is in the first memory location). For example, locations 88 and 89 store the lowest address of the screen memory. Let’s say the numbers found there are 22 and 56, respectively. To get the decimal address, you take the MSB (stored in 89) and multiply it by 256, then you add it to the LSB at 88. In our case that’s 56 * 256 equals 14336, plus 22 equals 14358. This is the address of the upper left corner of the screen. A simple way to do this in BASIC is:
BYTE = PEEK(88) + PEEK(89) * 256
The reverse (to break up a decimal location into MSB and LSB) is done by:
MSB = INT(BYTE/256):LSB = BYTE - MSB * 256
This process is easier for assembly language programmers who use hexadecimal numbers, since the right two digits are always the LSB and the two left of them are the MSB. For example:
$D016 (hexadecimal for 53270) equals 16 (LSB) and D0 (MSB)
$16 equals 22 in decimal, and $D0 equals 208 decimal. Multiply the MSB by 256 and add 22 and you get 53270. Throughout the map portion of this book I have provided both decimal and hexadecimal numbers together for ease of reference. In 8K BASIC, you can use decimal numbers only with POKE, and PEEK will return only decimal values to you.
Hexadecimal is a base 16 used instead of the normal base ten system because it is more suited to the eight-bit structure of the computer. So, when we say 2175 in decimal, what we really mean is:
10000 1000 100 10 1 0 2 1 7 5
In hex, the same number is $87F. That breaks down to:
4096 256 16 1 0 8 7 F
Rather than multiply each next step up by ten, we multiply by 16. Okay, but where do we get “F” from? Well, if base ten has the numbers zero to nine, base 16 will have to have some letters added to the end to make up for the extra numbers:
Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Hex 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
So $F equals 15 in decimal. Now here’s how it all relates to binary math and bits:
Each byte can be broken up into two parts (nybbles), like this:
If each nybble is considered a separate number, in decimal, the value of each would range from zero to 15, or zero to $F. Aha! So if all the bits in each group are on (one, or set), then you have:
1111 1111 Binary 15 15 Decimal F F Hex
You join the two hex numbers together and you get $FF (255 in decimal), the largest number a byte can hold. So you can see how we translate bytes from binary to hex, by translating each nybble. For example:
1001 1101 Binary 9 13 Decimal 9 D Hex
$9D equals nine times 16 plus 13, or 157 in decimal.
0100 0110 Binary 4 6 Decimal 4 6 Hex
$46 equals four times 16 plus six, or 70 in decimal.
1111 1010 Binary 15 10 Decimal F A Hex
$FA equals 15 times 16 plus ten, or 250 in decimal.
Obviously, it is easier to do this with a translation program or a calculator!
Since I will often be discussing setting bits and explaining a small amount of bit architecture, you should be aware of the simple procedures by which you can turn on and off specific bits in any location (that is, how to manipulate one of the eight individual bits within a byte). Each byte is a collection of eight bits: numbers are represented by turning on the particular bits that add up to the number stored in that byte. Bits can be either zero (0 equals off) or one (1 equals on, or SET). The bits are numbered zero to seven and represent the following decimal numbers:
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Value 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
The relationship between the bits and the powers of two should be obvious. Adding up all the numbers (all the bits are set) gives us 255. So each byte can hold a number between zero (no bits are set) and 255 (all bits are set).
Sometimes, instead of zero, no bits set is intended to mean 256. That will be noted in the relevant locations. So how do you set a bit? Simple: POKE it with the appropriate number. For example, to set Bit 5, POKE the location with 32. To set Bits 7, 5 and 4, add up their values, 128 + 32 + 16, and POKE the location with the total: 176.
Sometimes you need to set a bit without changing other bits already set, so you:
POKE number, PEEK(number) + decimal value for the bit to be set. (i.e., POKE 50418, PEEK(50418) + 32)
To turn off a bit, instead of adding the value you would subtract it with POKE number, PEEK(number), minus the decimal value for the bit to be turned off. Binary math is simple and easy to learn; if you don’t understand it now, you should do further reading on machine language before attempting any serious use of this guide.
It is useful for the reader to know how to perform Boolean logic on bits. There are three functions used in assembly code for bit manipulation in this manner: AND, OR and EOR (exclusive OR). Each requires you to use two numbers, the one being acted upon and the one used to perform the function. Here is a brief explanation of how these logical functions work:
AND is usually used as a mask—to zero out unwanted bits. You compare two binary numbers using AND; if both bits in the same location are one, then the result is one. If either bit is zero, then the result is zero. For example:
51 = 00110011 AND 15 = 00001111 ──────── Result = 00000011 = 3
OR is frequently used to force setting of a bit. If either bit in the original or the mask is one, then the result is one. For example:
65 = 01000001 OR 128 = 10000000 ──────── Result = 11000001 = 193
In this case, 65 is the ATASCII “A”. By ORing it with 128, we get 193, the ATASCII inverse “A”.
EOR “flips” bits in the original if the mask has a one in the same location. For example:
193 = 11000001 EOR 128 = 10000000 ──────── Result = 01000001 = 65
In this case, we have returned the inverse “A” to the normal ATASCII value. An EOR with 255 (all ones) will produce the complement of the number:
171 = 10101011 EOR 255 = 11111111 ──────── Result = 01010100 = 84
Original: Mask: AND: OR: EOR: 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
Atari BASIC supports AND, OR and NOT; NOT is the logical complement where NOT1 equals zero and NOT0 equals one. If the expression is true, you get a zero; if NOT true, a one is returned—for example, NOT ((3 + 4) >= 6) results in zero. See COMPUTE!, May 1981 for a machine language routine to allow you to perform Boolean bit logic using a USR call from BASIC.
In general, I have attempted to avoid using 6502 assembly language mnemonics, but have included them where I felt their use described the action to be taken better than a lengthy explanation. Most common are JMP (jump to location), JSR (jump to subroutine), RTS (return from subroutine), and RTI (return from interrupt). Readers should be minimally familiar with machine language in order to understand any machine language subroutines used here.
I also suggest that if the reader doesn’t already have one, he or she obtain a program to translate hex to decimal and decimal to hex (possibly even one with binary translations as well). The ROM cartridge from Eastern House Software, Monkey Wrench, is useful for this purpose. Perhaps the easiest to use is the TI Programmer calculator from Texas Instruments.
The examples in this book were all written using Atari 8K BASIC. They are intended to demonstrate the use or the effect of a particular memory location. They are not intended as the best examples of BASIC programming; they were written for simplicity, not sophistication.
As a final note, any question or doubt as to either a particular location or explanation has been noted. It can’t hurt to play around yourself, POKEing in the memory to see what other effects you can discover. If you find something I didn’t, good! Please write and let me know. You can’t hurt the machine by POKEing about in memory, although you may crash any program in memory, so SAVE your program first. Usually you can salvage it by pushing RESET, hut you may have to turn off the machine and reboot on occasion. You can learn a lot about your machine by simply playing around with it.
The majority of the information here concerns language-independent locations and can be used regardless of the language you use for your programming. When the location is language-dependent, such as the BASIC or DOS areas, I have noted it in the proper section. You may exert the same control over your Atari in FORTH, Pascal, LISP, or whatever language you chose. You will obviously have to change the commands PEEK and POKE to the proper commands of your language.
BASIC is a good language to start with: you can use it to learn programming, to explore your computer, to experiment with, and to have fun with. However, when you are ready to go on, you will have to learn a more efficient, faster language if you really want to make the best use of your Atari. Many people choose 6502 machine language because of its speed.
If you want to stay with a high-level language, I suggest you learn FORTH. It has some of the speed of machine language code with the ease of “higher level language” programming.
Computer languages, whichever you use, are quite exact in their meaning, especially compared to English. Consider that in English, a fat chance and a slim chance both mean the same thing. Yet POKE, PUT, and PUSH have very different meanings in computerese.
The main memory map shows you the decimal and then the hexadecimal location, the label (assigned by Atari and used by OS, DOS or DUP routines), and then comments and description. The label has no real function; it is merely a mnemonic convenience. Readers are referred to Stan Kelly-Bootle’s delightful book, The Devil’s DP Dictionary (McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1981), for a full definition of the word “label”. The following abbreviations are also noted in the comments:
(R) Read (W) Write
Sometimes the functions are different in a particular location, so each is noted.
(D:) Disk Drive (E:) Screen Editor (S:) Display (K:) Keyboard (P:) Printer (C:) Cassette (R:) RS-232 interface. (Don’t confuse this with (R) for Read.) The context should be obvious.
(number) e.g. (708) Shadow Register. This is a RAM register which corresponds to a ROM register in one of the special Atari chips such as GTIA or POKEY. The shadow location is the address you use to PEEK and POKE values. These shadow locations are polled by the hardware addresses 30 times a second at every stage two VBLANK interval, and the values used are transferred to the hardware locations for use. In order to effect any “permanent” change to the hardware location, you have to use the shadow register in BASIC (of course, every change is negated when you turn the machine off!). Only machine language is fast enough to use the hardware addresses directly.
For example, location 54273 is for character control. It polls location 755 to see if the screen characters are to be normal, inverse, or upside-down. To change the characters, you POKE location 755—the shadow—not 54273. If you POKE 54273, you will get the desired effect—for 1/60 of a second! As mentioned above, you can use the hardware addresses directly in machine language, but not in BASIC. It’s just too slow.
Sometimes, where most appropriate, a hexadecimal number will be displayed and the decimal number put in parentheses. The context should be obvious concerning which is a shadow or a decimal number.
(* letter) refers to a source in the case of a conflicting location or explanation. See the source below.
($number) refers to a hexadecimal (also called hex) number (i.e.: $D40E). I also refer to “pages” in memory. Pages are sections of 256 bytes ($100) of memory which end with 00 (i.e.: $E200, $C000, $600). Four pages ($400) equals 1024 bytes or 1K (kilobyte) of memory.
ANTIC, CTIA AND GTIA, PIA, POKEY: Special Atari chips controlling the 400/800’s graphics, color and screen resolution, controller jacks and sound, respectively. Located in ROM, locations 53248 to 54783. ANTIC also processes the Non-Maskable Interrupts and POKEY processes the Interrupt Requests. These chips, along with the 6502 microprocessor which runs the rest of the Atari, are housed inside your computer, protected by the metal shielding underneath the plastic cover.
BIT, BYTE: A bit is the smallest size division of memory in your computer. It is so small that it can hold only one value in it: off (zero) or on (one). Eight bits together form a byte; this is the size of the memory locations discussed in this book. You will sometimes hear programmers talk about a half-byte called a “nybble.”
CIO: Central Input/Output routines located in ROM. Controls Input/Output Control Block operations. Briefly, CIO handles the data input and output through the device driver(s) (also known as device handlers), then passes control to those drivers. It’s a single interface with which to access all peripherals in a device-independent manner (i.e., uniform handling of data with no regard to the device being accessed). As an example: writing data to a disk file is treated in an identical manner as writing data to the screen; commas insert blanks between elements and both semicolons and commas suppress the End-Of-Line character (EOL).
DCB: Device Control Block, used by Serial Input/Output.
DL: Display List. This is a set of instructions which tell the ANTIC chip where to find the screen display data and how that data is to be placed on the TV screen.
DLI: Display List Interrupt. A DLI causes the display to stop processing to temporarily run a user-written routine.
DOS: Disk Operating System. The software loaded from disk file DOS.SYS that controls all disk I/O. The latest edition of DOS is called DOS 2.0S (S for single density).
DUP: Disk Utilities Package. The software loaded from disk file DUP.SYS that handles the DOS menu functions such as Copy.
FMS (or sometimes DFMS): File Management System portion of DOS; a dedicated device driver that controls all I/O operations for device “D:”.
FP: Floating Point mathematical package in ROM.
IOCB: Input/Output Control Block. Area of RAM (locations 832 to 959) used by CIO to define operations to devices such as the disk drive (D:), printer (P:), screen display (S:), keyboard (K:) and screen editor (E:). ZIOCB is the page zero IOCB.
IRQ: Interrupt request used for serial port communication, peripheral devices, timing and keyboard input. IRQ’s are processed by the POKEY chip.
NMI: Non-Maskable Interrupt; used for video display and RESET. NMIs are processed by the ANTIC chip.
OS: Operating System. The resident system that runs the Atari. The OS resides in the 10K front cartridge slot under the hood in your Atari 800. It’s not visible in the 400 without taking the cover apart (not recommended). The OS is the same for both the 400 and 800. There are two versions of the OS currently in circulation: the older “A” ROMs and the newer “B” ROMs, released around January 1982. The new OS is almost identical to the old OS except that it corrects a few bugs and changes some addresses. Not all of your old software will run with the new OS. The differences between the two are better explained in Appendix Four. Although people often refer to the entire ROM area as the OS, this is not correct. The OS ROM is that portion of memory which holds the floating point package, the Atari character set, the device handlers, and both CIO and SIO. The actual operating system itself is the portion of the OS ROM which handles the I/O.
PMG, PM Graphics: Player/missile graphics. Players and missiles are special moveable, user-defined, colored screen objects. They are often used for games, animation, or special cursors. PM graphics are unique in that you can establish the manner (priority) in which they interact with the rest of the screen display and each other.
RAM: Random Access Memory. All memory below the OS area (0 to 49151) which is used for storage, programs, buffers, cartridges, DOS, IOCB, shadow registers, and registers for the special Atari chips. Random Access means you can get to and from these locations at random, not that they store information randomly!
ROM: Read Only Memory. That part of high memory (locations 49152 to 65535) in which the special hardware chips and the OS reside. ROM is also used to describe cartridge memory such as the 8K BASIC ROM, which cannot be user-altered (the cartridge ROM supersedes the RAM). You cannot alter most of the ROM, although some of the locations in the special Atari chips may be temporarily set to a new value. With both RAM and ROM, we refer to areas with lesser values as being in “low” memory and locations with larger values as being in “high” memory.
SIO: Serial Input/Output routines located in ROM. Controls serial operations including the 850 interface (R:) and cassette recorder (C:). Briefly, SIO controls the Atari peripherals as per the request placed in its Device Control Block (DCB) by the proper device driver. It is also accessed by FMS for data transfer.
VBI: VBLANK interrupt. A VBI is an interrupt that occurs during the VBLANK interval, causing the computer to jump to a user-specified location to process a short user-written routine during the VBLANK process.
VBLANK: Vertical Blank. The interval between the time the TV electron beam turns off after reaching the bottom right corner of the screen and returns to the top left corner and turns back on again. This small time period may be used by machine language programmers for short routines without interrupting the display by writing a VBI (above). There are two VBLANK stages. Stage one is performed every VBLANK cycle (1/60 second). Stage two is performed either every 1/30 second or every 1/60 second when it doesn’t interrupt time-critical code being executed. See the end of the memory map for the processes executed in each stage.
Letters in brackets are used in this guide to identify the source.
(*M) Master Memory Map Ver. 2, Santa Cruz Educational Software, 1981. A memory guide by the same people who brought us the TRICKY TUTORIAL series. The latter are both tutorials and applications utilities. The map does contain some annoying errata.
(*Y) Your Atari Computer, by Lon Poole with Martin McNiff & Steven Cook, Osborne/McGraw-Hill, 1982. The best guide to date on general use of the Atari. Very highly recommended
(*C) COMPUTE!’s First Book of Atari, by the Editors of COMPUTE! Magazine, Small System Services Inc., 1981. A good collection of early articles that appeared in the magazine.
At the time of this writing, COMPUTE!’s Second Book of Atari had just been released. It is therefore not used as a reference source here, but it is a must for serious programmers. It contains a wealth of information on an enormous range of topics, including advanced graphics, forced-read modes, page flipping, Atari BASIC and many valuable utilities. It should be a staple in most Atari owners’ libraries.
(*I) Inside Atari DOS, compiled by Bill Wilkinson, published by COMPUTE! Books, Small System Services, Inc., 1982. An explanation and copyrighted source code for the FMS portion of DOS 2.0.
Atari BASIC: Learning by Using, by Thomas Rowley, Hofhacker Press, 1981. A lot of information packed into a surprisingly good little book.
The following publications are all from Atari, Inc. I recommend them to all truly interested in understanding their Atari computers:
(*D): De Re Atari: an arcane, but indispensable reference to the Atari’s operations and come of its most impressive aspects, by Chris Crawford et al. Serialized in BYTE magazine, late 1981 to mid 1982. Earlier editions have some errata, so make sure you obtain the latest edition.
(*O) Operating System User’s Manual and
(*H) Hardware Manual. The famous “technical manuals” pair. Indispensable for serious users, albeit heavy going and not generally very professional in their presentation of material.
(*8) 850 Interface Module Operator’s Manual. The 850 manual gives many examples in BASIC of how to use the RS232 serial interface ports for both printer control and telecommunications. A very good terminal program called Jonesterm, in BASIC with machine language subroutines, is in the public domain and is available on many electronic bulletin board systems, including CompuServe. Modem users will find many useful programs available in CompuServe.
(*L) Operating Systems Listing and
(*U) Disk Utilities Listings are the commented, copyrighted source code listings for the OS and the DUP.SYS portion of DOS.
(*B) Atari BASIC Reference Manual.
(*S) Disk Operating System II Reference Manual.
(*A) Atari Microsoft BASIC Instruction Manual. Microsoft BASIC makes excellent use of PEEKs and POKEs to accomplish many tasks. It also has many powerful commands not available in the 8K BASIC.
ANTIC Magazine had an extensive memory map, written by James Capparell, which continued over a number of issues. When it was used as a source, I labelled these references with (AM). It has a few minor errata in it.
I found a number of other magazine articles useful, particularly those in COMPUTE! and Creative Computing. I also found Softside, BYTE, ANALOG and Micro magazines to be useful in the preparation of this book. These are all referred to throughout the book by month or issue. We owe a vote of thanks to the folks at Atari who published the technical manuals and the source listings of the operating system and the DOS. We owe another vote of thanks to Bill Wilkinson, of Optimized Systems Software Inc., who created the DUP portion of DOS and decided to publish the source code in his Inside Atari DOS. No other computer manufacturer has, to my knowledge, ever provided users with such in-depth material or the details of its own operating systems. Without it, none of this would have been possible: a lot of the information here was gleaned from those sources.
This book is arranged in four sections: a numerical listing of the main Atari memory locations, their labels and their use; a general map diagram to show how the memory is broken down; an appendix of utility material with charts and tables, and an index/cross-reference guide.
There is an awful lot of information contained here; tedious as it might appear, I suggest that you read this manual through at least once. Some of the information which is not clear in one area may be elaborated on and made clearer in another area. Wherever another location is referred to in one description, you should turn to the reference and read it after you have read through the first location. You should also refer to the locations used in any sample program. The more familiar you are with the memory, the more you will get out of your Atari. When you read the description in any memory location, make sure you refer to either the shadow or the hardware register mentioned for more information.
On powerup (when you turn on the computer) the Atari OS performs a number of functions, some of which are noted as defaults in the memory locations to follow. Among these functions are:
Coldstart (powerup) essentially wipes the computer clean and should only be used for such. It’s rather drastic.
When the RESET key is pushed, the OS performs some of the same functions as in powerup as well as some unique functions, including:
Note that a RESET does not wipe RAM, but leaves it intact. Usually your program and variables will be secure when you press RESET. This is considerably less drastic than powerup as above.
There are two vectors for initialization so that these processes may be user initiated: 58484 ($E474) for RESET and 58487 ($E477) for powerup.
See the OS User’s Manual, pages 109 to 112, and De Re Atari for a flowchart of the process.
When I was asked by the editors at COMPUTE! to write this introduction, I was at first a little hesitant. How does one introduce what is essentially a map of the significant locations on the Atari other than by saying “This is a map of...”?
And, yet, there is something about this book which makes it more than “simply a map.” After all, if this were “simply” a memory map, I might “simply” use it to learn that “SSKCTL” is the “serial port control” and that it is at location $232. But what does that mean? Why would I want to control the serial port? How would I control it?
The value of this book, then, lies not so much in the map itself as it does in the explanations of the various functions and controls and the implications thereof. Even though I consider myself reasonably familiar with the Atari (and its ROM-based operating system), I expect to use this book often.
Until now, if I needed to use an exotic location somewhere in the hardware registers, I would have to first locate the proper listing, then find the right routine within the listing, figure out why and how the routine was accessing the given register, and finally try to make sure that there were no other routines that also accessed this same register. Whew! Now, I will open this book, turn to the right page, find out what I need to know, and start programming.
Okay. So much for this introduction. And if you are comfortable programming your “home” language, the language you know best, and two or three other languages, you don’t need any more from me. So good luck and bon voyage.
What? Still with me? Does that mean that you are not comfortable doing memory mapped access in three or four languages? Well, to tell the truth, neither am I. And so the one thing I decided would be of most value in this introduction would be a summary of how to do memory access from no less than seven different languages. (Or is it eight? Well....)
The title of this section is perhaps a little misleading (on purpose, of course, as those of you who read my column “Insight: Atari” in COMPUTE! Magazine can attest). The “common problem” we will discuss here is not a bug-type problem. Rather, it is a task-type problem which occurs in many common programs. Or perhaps we could approach it as a quiz. Why not?
Quiz: Devise a set of routines which will (1) alter the current cursor position (in any standard OS graphics mode) to that horizontal and vertical position specified by the variables “H” and “V” and (2) retrieve the current cursor position in a like manner. To receive full credit for this problem, implement the routine in at least seven different computer languages.
Well, our first task will be to decide what seven languages we will use. First step in the solution: find out what languages are available on the Atari computers. Here’s my list:
Does it match yours? You don’t get credit for more than one assembler or more than one Forth. And, actually, you shouldn’t get credit for Microsoft BASIC, since it uses exactly the same method as Atari BASIC. And I will tell you right now that I will not attempt this task in LISP. If you are a LISP fanatic, more power to you; but I don’t have any idea of how to approach the problem with Datasoft’s LISP (the only LISP currently available on the Atari).
Anyway, let’s tackle these languages one at a time.
Well, how about two at a time this one time? The implementation really is the same for these two languages.
Actually, the first part of this problem set is done for you in Atari BASIC: the POSITION statement indeed does exactly what we want (POSITION H,V will do the assigned task). But that’s cheating, since the object of these problems is to discover how to do machine level access without such aids.
Step 1 is to look at the memory map and discover that COLCRS, at locations 85 and 86, is supposed to be the current graphics cursor column (COLumn of CuRSor). Also, ROWCRS (ROW of CuRSor) at location 84 is the current graphics cursor row.
Let’s tackle the row first. Assuming that the row number is in the variable “V” (as specified above), then we may set the row cursor via “POKE 84,V”. And, in a like manner, we may say “V = PEEK(84)” to assign the current position to “V”. Now that’s fairly straightforward: to change a single memory location, use “POKE address,value”; to retrieve the contents of a single memory location, use “PEEK(address)”. Virtually anyone who has programmed in BASIC on an Atari is at least familiar with the existence of PEEK and POKE, since that is the only method of accessing certain functions of the machine (and since the game programs published in magazines are loaded with PEEKs and POKEs).
But now let’s look at the cursor column, specified as being locations 85 and 86, a “two byte” value. What does that mean? How can something occupy two locations? Actually, it all stems from the fact that a single location (byte, memory cell, character, etc.) in an Atari computer can store only 256 different values (usually numbered 0 to 255). If you need to store a bigger number, you have to use more bytes. For example, two contiguous bytes can be used to store 65536 different values, three bytes can store 16,777,216 different values, etc.
Since the Atari graphics mode can have as many as 320 columns, we can’t use a single one-byte location to store the column number. Great! We’ll simply use two bytes and tell BASIC that we want to talk to a bigger memory cell. What’s that? You can’t tell BASIC to use a bigger memory cell? Oops.
Ah, but have no fear. We can still perform the task; it just takes a little more work in BASIC. The first sub-problem is to break the column number (variable “H”) into two “pieces,” one for the first byte and one for the second. The clearest way to accomplish this is with the following code:
H1 = INT(H/256) H2 = H - 256 * H1
Because of the nature of machine language “arithmetic,” numbers designed to be two-byte integers must usually be divided as shown: the “high order byte” must be obtained by dividing the number by 256, and any fractional part of the quotient must be discarded. The “low order byte” is actually the remainder after all units of 256 have been extracted (often designated as “the number modulo 256”).
So, if we have obtained “H1” and “H2” as above, we can change the cursor row as follows:
POKE 85,H2 POKE 86,H1
Notice the reversal of the order of the bytes! For the Atari (and many other microcomputers), the low order (or least significant) byte comes first in memory, followed by the high order (or most significant) byte.
Now, suppose we wish to avoid the use of the temporary variables “H1” and “H2” and further suppose that we would now like to write the entire solution to the first problem here. Voilà:
POKE 84,V POKE 86,INT(H/256) POKE 85,H - 256 * INT(H/256)
And we wrote those last two lines in “reverse” order so that we could offer a substitute last line, which will not be explained here but which should become clear a few paragraphs hence:
POKE 85,H - 256 * PEEK(86)
Whew ! All that to solve just that first problem! Cheer up, it does get easier. In fact, we already mentioned above that you can retrieve the current row via “PEEK(84)”. But how about the column?
Again, we must remember that the column number might be big enough to require two adjacent bytes (locations, memory cells, etc.). Again, we could construct the larger number via the following:
H2 = PEEK(85) H1 = PEEK(86) H = H2 + 256 * H1
Do you see the relationship between this and the POKEs? To “put it back together,” we must multiply the “high order byte” by 256 (because, remember, it is actually the number of 256’s we could obtain from the larger number) before adding it to the “low order byte.”
Again, let us summarize and simplify. The following code will satisfy the second problem requirement for BASIC:
V = PEEK(84) H = PEEK(85) + 256 * PEEK(86)
Okay. We did it. For two languages. And if you are only interested in BASIC, you can quit now. But if you are even a little bit curious, stick with us. It gets better.
There might be a little bit of prejudice on my part here, but I do feel that this is the easiest language to explain to beginners. In fact, rather than start with text, let’s show the solutions:
Problem 1. POKE 84,V DPOKE 85,H Problem 2. V = PEEK(84) H = DPEEK(85)
As you can see, for the single memory cell situations, BASIC A+ functions exactly the same as the Atari and Microsoft BASICs. But for the double-byte problems, BASIC A+ has an extra statement and an extra function, designed specifically to interface to the double-byte “words” of the Atari’s 6502 processor.
DPOKE (Double POKE) performs exactly the equivalent of the two POKEs required by Atari BASIC. DPEEK (Double PEEK) similarly combines the functions of both the Atari BASIC PEEKs. And that’s it. Simple and straightforward.
I think the ease of performing the required problems in Forth will show how tightly and neatly Forth is tied to the machine level of the computer. In fact, we don’t really have to “invent” a way to solve these problems; the solutions are within the normal specifications, expectations, and capabilities of virtually all Forth implementations.
Again, I think I will show the solutions before explaining:
Problem 1. V @ 84 c! H @ 85! Problem 2. 84 c@ H! 85 @ V!
Now, if you are not a Forth user, that may all look rather cryptic (looks like a secret code to me), but let’s translate it into pseudo-English. The first line of the first problem might be read like this:
V means the location (or variable) called “V” @ means fetch the contents of that location 84 means use the number 84 c! means store the character (byte) that we fetched first into the location that we fetched second or, in shorter form, “V is to be fetched as the data and 84 is to be used as the address of a byte-sized memory store.”
The second line, then, would read essentially the same except that the “!” used (instead of “c!”) implies a full word (double byte) store, as does DPOKE in BASIC A+.
The similarity and symmetry of the solutions of Problems 1 and 2 are striking. Let us “read” the first line of the second problem:
84 means use the number 84 (in this case, as a location) c@ means fetch the byte (character) at that location V means fetch the location (variable) called “V” ! means store the data fetched first into the location fetched second
And, again, the only difference between this and the next line is that “@” (instead of “c@”) implies a double-byte fetch (again, as does DPEEK of BASIC A+).
Neither is there space here nor it is appropriate now to discuss the foibles of Forth’s reverse Polish notation and its stacking mechanism, but even dyed-in-the-wool algorithmic language freaks (like me) can appreciate its advantages in situations such as those demonstrated here.
No, that does not mean “Section C.” Believe it or not, “C” is the name of a computer language. In fact, it is one of the more popular computer languages among systems programmers. It is “the” language used on and by the UNIX operating system, which appears to have the inside track on being the replacement for CP/M on the largest microcomputers (e.g., those based on 68000 and other more advanced processors).
C, somewhat like Forth, is fairly intimately tied to the machine level. For example, there are operators in C which will increment or decrement a memory location, just as there are such instructions in the assembly language of most modern microprocessors.
Unlike Forth, however, C requires the user to declare that he/she is going beyond the scope of the language structures in order to “cheat” and access the machine level directly. In standard C (i.e., as found on UNIX), we could change the current cursor row via something like this:
*((char *)84) = V;
Which, I suppose, is just as cryptic as Forth to the uninitiated. If you remember that parentheses imply precedence, just as in BASIC, you could read the above as “Use the expression ‘84’ as a pointer to a character (i.e., the address of a byte—specified by ‘char*’) and store V (‘=’) indirectly (the first ‘*’) into that location.” Whew! Even experienced C users (well, some of us) often find themselves putting in extra parentheses to be sure the expression means what they want it to.
Anyway, that ‘(char *)’ is called “type casting” and is a feature of more advanced C compilers than those available for the Atari. But, to be fair, it is really a poor way of doing the job, anyway. So let’s do it “right”:
Problem 1. char *pc; /* Pc is a pointer to a byte */ int *pi; /* pi is a pointer to a double byte */ pc = 84; pi = 85; ... *pc = V; *pi = H; Problem 2. char *pc; int *pi; pc = 84 ; pi = 85; ... V = *pc; H = *pi;
As with the Pascal solutions, in the following section, we must declare the “type” of a variable, rather than simply assuming its existence (as in BASIC) or declaring its existence (as in Forth). The theory is that this will let the compiler detect more logic errors, since you aren’t supposed to do the wrong thing with the wrong variable type. (In practice, the C compilers available for the Atari, including our own C/65, are “loose” enough to allow you to cheat most of the time.)
Here, the declarations establish that “pc” (program counter) will always point to (i.e., contain the address of) a byte-sized item. But “pi” will always point to a word-sized (double byte) item. Now, actually, these variables point to nothing until we put an address into them, which we proceed to do via “pc = 84” and “pi = 85”.
And, finally, the actual “assignments” to or from memory are handled by the last line in each problem solution. Now, all this looks very complicated and hardly worthwhile, but the advantage of C is, once we have made all our declarations, that we can use the variables and structures wherever we need them in a program module, secure in the knowledge that our code is at least partially self-documented.
Actually, standard Pascal has no methods whatsoever available to solve these problems. Remember, Pascal is a “school” language, and access to the machine level was definitely not a desirable feature in such an environment. In fact, most of the Pascal compilers in use today have invented some way to circumvent the restrictions of “standard” Pascal, and it is largely because of such “inventions” that the various versions of the language are incompatible.
Anyway, Atari Pascal does provide a method to access individual memory cells. I am not sure that the method I will show here is the best or easiest way, but it appears to work. Again, the solution is presented first:
Note: the code in this first part is common to both problems, both for H and V. (* in the “type” declarations section *) charaddr = record row: char; end; wordaddr = record col: integer; end; (* in the “var” declarations section *) pc: ^charaddr; pw: ^wordaddr; rowcrs: absolute  ^charaddr; colcrs: absolute  ^wordaddr; Problem 1. (includes the above common code) (* execution code in the procedure *) pc := rowcrs; pw := colcrs; pc^.row := V; pw^.col := H; Problem 2. (includes the above common code) (* again, procedure execution code *) pc := rowcrs; pw := colcrs; V := Pc^.row; H := pw^.col;
Did you get lost? Don’t feel bad. I really felt that this could be written in a simpler fashion, but I wanted to present a version which I felt reasonably sure would work under most circumstances.
The type declarations are necessary simply to establish record formats which can be pointed to (and it was these record formats which I felt to be redundant). Then the variables which indeed point to these record formats are declared. Most importantly, the “absolute” type allows us to inform the Pascal compiler that we have a constant which really is (honest, really, please let it be) the address of one of those record formats we wanted to point to. (And it is this “absolute” type which is the extension of Pascal which is not in the standard.)
Once we have made all our declarations, the code looks surprisingly like the C code: assign the absolute address to the pointer and then fetch or store via the pointer. The overhead of the record element reference (the “.row” and “.col”) is the only real difference (and perhaps unneeded, as I stated).
And here we are at last at the simplest of the Atari languages. Again, standard PILOT has no defined way of accessing individual memory cells. And, again, the reason for this is that PILOT was (and is) a language designed for use in schools, where the last thing you want is poking around in memory and crashing the 100 megabyte disk with next year’s budget on it.
However, when using PILOT on an Atari computer, the worst anyone can do is to crunch their own copy of their own disk or cassette. So Atari has thoughtfully provided a way to access memory cells from PILOT; and they have done it in a fashion that is remarkably reminiscent of BASIC. Once more, the solution is given first:
Problem 1. C:@B84 = #V C:@B86 = #H/256 C:@B85 = #H\256 Problem 2. C:#V = @B84 C:#H = @B85 + (256 * @B86)
The trick to this is that Atari PILOT uses the “@B” operator to indicate a memory reference. When used on the left side of the equals sign in a C: (compute) statement, it implies a store (just as does POKE in BASIC). When used on the right side of an equals sign (or, for that matter, in Jump tests, etc.), it implies a memory fetch (just as does PEEK in BASIC).
If you have already examined the BASIC code, you will probably note a marked similarity between it and this PILOT example. Again, we must take the larger number apart into its two components: the number of units of 256 each (#H/256) and the remainder. Notice that with PILOT we do not need to (nor can we) specify “INT(#H/256)”. There is no INT function simply because all arithmetic in Atari PILOT is done with double-byte integers already. Sometimes, as in this instance, that can be an advantage. Other times, the lack of floating point will preclude PILOT being used for several applications.
Notice the last line of the solution to problem 1: the use of the “\” (modulo) operator is essentially just a convenient shorthand available in several languages. In PILOT,
is exactly equivalent to
“#H - (256 * (#H/256) )”.
Atari PILOT is much more flexible and usable than the original, so why not take advantage of all its features? Experiment. You will be glad you did.
I almost didn’t include this section, since anyone working with assembly language (and especially those trying to debug at the machine language level) would presumably know how to manipulate bytes and words. And yet, it might prove interesting to those who do not know assembler to see just how the 6502 processor really does perform its feats.
For the purposes of the example solutions, we will presume that somewhere in our program we have coded something equivalent to the following:
V *= *+1 ; reserve one byte for V H *= *+2 ; reserve two bytes for H
Those lines do not give values to V and H; they simply assign memory space to hold the eventual values (somewhat like DIMensioning an array in Atari BASIC, which does not put any particular values into the array). If we wished not only to reserve space for the “variables” V and H but also to assign an initial value to them, we could code this instead:
V .BYTE 3 ; assign initial value of 3 to byte V H .WORD 290 ; assign initial value of 290 to word H
Anyway, given that H and V have been reserved and have had some value(s) placed in them, here are the solutions to the problems:
Problem 1. LDA V ; get the contents of V STA 84 ; and store them in ROWCRS LDA H ; then get the first byte of H STA 85 ; and store in first byte of COLORS LDA H+1 ; what’s this? the second byte of H! STA 86 ; into the second byte of COLORS Problem 2. LDA 84 ; almost, we don’t need to comment this... STA V ; it’s just problem 1 in reverse! LDA 85 ; first byte of COLORS again STA H ; into the least significant byte of H LDA 86 ; and also the second byte STA H+1 ; the high order byte of H
Do you wonder why we didn’t try to move both bytes of H at one time, as we did in BASIC A+, above? Simple: the 6502 microprocessor has no way to move two bytes in a single instruction! Honest! (And this is probably its biggest failing as a CPU.)
Of course, if you have a macro assembler, you could write a macro to perform these operations. Here is an example using one macro assembler available for the Atari, though all macro assemblers will operate in at least a similar fashion. First, we define a pair of macros:
.MACRO MOVEWORD LDA %1 STA %2 LDA %1+1 STA %2+1 .ENDM .MACRO MOVEBYTE LDA %1 STA %2 .ENDM
Both these macros simply move their first “argument” into their second “argument” (and we won’t define here just what “arguments” are and how they work—examine a macro assembler manual for more information). The first macro moves two adjacent bytes (i.e., a “word”), and the second moves a single byte. And now we can write our problem code in a much simpler fashion:
Problem 1. MOVEBYTE V,84 MOVEWORD H,85 Problem 2. MOVEBYTE 84,V MOVEWORD 85,H
And yet another concept before we leave assembly language. One of the most powerful features of an assembler is its ability to handle equated symbols. The real beauty of this, aside from producing more readable code, is that you can change all references to a location or value or whatever by simply changing a single equate in your source code. Thus, if somewhere near the beginning of our source program we had coded the following two lines:
ROWCRS = 84 ; address of ROW CuRSor COLCRS = 85 ; address of COLumn CuRSor
then we could have “solved” the problems thus:
Problem 1. MOVEBYTE V,ROWCRS MOVEWORD H,COLCRS Problem 2. MOVEBYTE ROWCRS,V MOVEWORD COLCRS,H
And I believe that this looks as elegant and readable as any of the higher level languages! In fact, it looks more readable than most of the examples given above. To be fair, though, we should note that all of the examples could have been made more readable by substituting variable names instead of the absolute numbers “84” and “85,” but the overhead of declaring and assigning variables is sometimes not worth it for languages such as BASIC and PILOT.
Luckily, the remaining languages (Forth, C, and Pascal) all have a means of declaring constants (akin to the assembly language equate) which has little or no consequential overhead. So go ahead—be the oddball on your block and make your code readable and maintainable. It may lose you friends, but it might help you land a job.
Well, we made it. I hope you now at least have an idea of what to do to modify and examine various memory locations in all of the languages shown. Virtually all of the many locations mapped in this book will fall into one of the two categories examined: they will involve changing or examining either a single byte or a double byte (word, integer, address, etc.). Follow the models shown here, and you should have little trouble effecting your desires.
For those few locations which do not follow the above patterns (e.g., the system clock, which is a three-byte location in high-middle-low order), you may be able to accomplish your ends by considering each byte individually. Also, we have made no discussion here of the Atari floating point format, which is truly accessible in any reasonable fashion only from assembly language, and which has little pertinence to this memory map in any case.
I think I would like to add only one more comment, which will be in the form of a caution: If you aren’t sure what you are doing when changing or examining memory locations, make sure that your program in memory is backed up (on disk or cassette), and then make sure that you have “popped” (unloaded) your disks and/or tapes. It is unlikely that changing memory will cause problems affecting your saved files, but why take chances. (And, if you make a mistake or are in doubt, re-boot the disk; don’t just hit RESET, since that won’t necessarily clean up all your errors.)
Good luck and happy mapping.
Locations zero to 255 ($0 to $FF) are called “page zero” and have special importance for assembly language programmers since these locations are accessed faster and easier by the machine.
Locations zero to 127 ($0 to $7F) are reserved as the OS page zero, while 128 to 255 ($80 to $FF) are the BASIC and the user zero page RAM. Locations zero to 1792 ($0 to $700) are all used as the OS and (if the cartridge is present) 8K BASIC RAM (except page six). Locations zero to 8191 ($0 to $1FFF) are the minimum required for operation (8K).
Locations two through seven are not cleared on any start operation.
LINBUG RAM, replaced by the monitor RAM See the OS Listing, page 31. It seems to be used to store the VBLANK timer value. One user application I’ve seen for location zero is in a metronome program in De Re Atari. Also used in cross-assembling the Atari OS.
Cassette initialization vector: JSR through here if the cassette boot was successful. This address is extracted from the first six bytes of a cassette boot file. The first byte is ignored. The second contains the number of records, the third and fourth contain the low and high bytes of the load address, and the fifth and sixth contain the low and high bytes of the initialization address. Control upon loading jumps to the load address plus six for a multi-stage load and through CASINI for initialization. JSR through DOSVEC (10 and 11; $A,$B) to transfer control to the application.
RAM pointer for the memory test used on powerup. Also used to store the disk boot address — normally 1798 ($706) — for the boot continuation routine.
Temporary Register for RAM size; used during powerup sequence to test RAM availability. This value is then moved to RAMTOP, location 106 ($6A). Reads one when the BASIC or the A (left) cartridge is plugged in.
RAM test data register. Reads one when the B or the right cartridge is inserted.
RAMLO, TRAMSZ and TSTDAT are all used in testing the RAM size on powerup. On DOS boot, RAMLO and TRAMSZ also act as temporary storage for the boot continuation address. TRAMSZ and TSTDAT are used later to flag whether or not the A (left) and/or B (right) cartridges, respectively, are plugged in (non-zero equals cartridge plugged in) and whether the disk is to be hooted.
Locations eight through 15 ($8-$F) are cleared on coldstart only.
Warmstart flag. If the location reads zero, then it is in the middle of powerup; 255 is the normal RESET status. Warmstart is similar to pressing RESET, so should not wipe out memory, variables, or programs. WARMST is initialized to zero and will not change values unless POKEd or until the first time the RESET button is pressed. It will then read 255 ($FF).
Warmstart normally vectors to location 58484 ($E474). WARMST is checked by the NMI status register at 54287 ($D40F) when RESET is pressed to see whether or not to re-initialize the software or to re-boot the disk.
Boot flag success indicator. A value of 255 in this location will cause the system to lockup if RESET is pressed. If BOOT? reads one, then the disk boot was successful; if it reads two, then the cassette boot was successful. If it reads zero, then neither peripheral was booted.
If it is set to two, then the cassette vector at locations two and three will be used on RESET. Set to one, it will use the DOS vector at 10 and 11 ($A and $B). Coldstart attempts both a cassette and a disk boot and flags this location with the success or failure of the boots. BOOT? is checked during both disk and cassette boot.
Start vector for disk (or non-cartridge) software. This is the address BASIC jumps to when you call up DOS. Can be set by user to point to your own routine, but RESET will return DOSVEC to the original address. To prevent this, POKE 5446 with the LSB and 5450 with the MSB of your vector address and re-save DOS using the WRITE DOS FILES option in the menu. Locations 10 and 11 are usually loaded with 159 and 23 ($9F and $17), respectively. This allows the DUP.SYS section of DOS to be loaded when called. It is initially set to blackboard mode vector (58481; $E471 — called by typing “BYE” or “B.” from BASIC); it will also vector to the cassette run address if no DOS vector is loaded in. If you create an AUTORUN.SYS file that doesn’t end with an RTS instruction, you should set BOOT? to one and 580 ($244) to zero.
Initialization address for the disk boot. Also used to store the cassette-boot RUN address, which is then moved to CASINI (2, 3). When you powerup without either the disk or an autoboot cassette tape, DOSINI will read zero in both locations.
Applications memory high limit and pointer to the end of your BASIC program, used by both the OS and BASIC. It contains the lowest address you can use to set up a screen and Display List (which is also the highest address usable for programs and data below which the display RAM may not be placed). The screen handler will not OPEN the “S:” device if it would extend the screen RAM or the Display List below this address; memory above this address may be used for the screen display and other data (PM graphics, etc.).
If an attempted screen mode change would extend the screen memory below APPMHI, then the screen is set up for GRAPHICS mode zero; MEMTOP (locations 741, 742; $2E5, $2E6) is updated and an error is returned to the user. Otherwise, the memory is not too small for the screen editor; the mode change will take effect and MEMTOP will be updated. This is one of five locations used by the OS to keep track of the user and display memory. Initialized to zero by the OS at powerup. Remember, you cannot set up a screen display below the location specified here.
If you use the area below the Display List for your character sets, PM graphics or whatever, be sure to set APPMHI above the last address used so that the screen or the DL data will not descend and destroy your own data. See RAMTOP location 106 ($6A), MEMTOP at 741, 742 ($2E5, $2E6), PMBASE at 54279 ($D407) and CHBASE at 54281 ($D409) for more information.
Locations 16 through 127 ($10-$7F) are cleared on either cold- or warmstart.
POKEY interrupts: the IRQ service uses and alters this location. Shadow for 53774 ($D20E). POKE with 112 ($70; also POKE this same value into 53774) to disable the BREAK key. If the following bits are set (to one), then these interrupts are enabled (bit decimal values are in parentheses):
BIT DECIMAL FUNCTION 7 128 The BREAK key is enabled. 6 64 The “other key” interrupt is enabled. 5 32 The serial input data ready interrupt is enabled. 4 16 The serial output data required interrupt is enabled. 3 8 The serial out transmission finished interrupt is enabled. 2 4 The POKEY timer four interrupt is enabled (only in the “B” or later versions of the OS ROMs). 1 2 The POKEY timer two interrupt is enabled. 0 1 The POKEY timer one interrupt is enabled.
Timer interrupt enable means the associated AUDF registers are used as timers and will generate an interrupt request when they have counted down to zero. See locations 528 to 535 ($210 to $217) and the POKEY chip from locations 53760 ($D200) on, for a full explanation. 192 ($C0) is the default on powerup.
You can also disable the BREAK key by POKEing here with 64 ($40; or any number less than 128; $80) and also in location 53774. The problem with simple POKEs is that the BREAK key is re-enabled when RESET is pressed and by the first PRINT statement that displays to the screen, or any OPEN statement that addresses the screen (S: or E:), or the first PRINT statement after such an OPEN and any GRAPHICS command. In order to continually disable the BREAK key if such commands are being used, it’s best to use a subroutine that checks the enable bits frequently during input and output operations, and POKEs a value less than 128 into the proper locations, such as:
1000 BREAK=PEEK(16)-128:IF BREAK<0 THEN RETURN 1010 POKE 16,BREAK:POKE 53774,BREAK:RETURN
The new OS “B” version ROMs have a vector for the BREAK key interrupt, which allows users to write their own routines to process the interrupt in the desired manner. It is located at 566, 567 ($236, $237).
Zero means the BREAK key is pressed; any other number means it’s not. A BREAK during I/O returns 128 ($80). Monitored by both keyboard, display, cassette and screen handlers. See location 16 ($A) for hints on disabling the BREAK key. The latest editions of OS provide for a proper vector for BREAK interrupts. The BREAK key abort status code is stored in STATUS (48; $30). It is also checked during all I/O and scroll/draw routines. During the keyboard handler routine, the status code is stored in DSTAT (76; $4C). BRKKEY is turned off at powerup. BREAK key abort status is flagged by setting BIT 7 of 53774 ($D20E). See the note on the BREAK key vector, above.
Internal realtime clock. Location 20 increments every stage one VBLANK interrupt (1/60 second = one jiffy) until it reaches 255 ($FF); then location 19 is incremented by one and 20 is reset to zero (every 4.27 seconds). When location 19 reaches 255, it and 20 are reset to zero and location 18 is incremented by one (every 18.2 minutes or 65536 TV frames). To use these locations as a timer of seconds, try:
TIME = INT((PEEK(18) * 65536 + PEEK(19) * 256 + PEEK(20))/60)
To see the count in jiffies, eliminate the “/60” at the end. To see the count in minutes, change “/60” to “/360.” The maximum value of the RT clock is 16,777,215. When it reaches this value, it will be reset to zero on the next VBLANK increment. This value is the result of cubing 256 (i.e., 256 * 256 * 256), the maximum number of increments in each clock register. The RT clock is always updated every VBLANK regardless of the time-critical nature of the code being processed.
A jiffy is actually a long time to the computer. It can perform upwards of 8000 machine cycles in that time. Think of what can be done in the VBLANK interval (one jiffy). In human terms, a jiffy can be upwards of 20 minutes, as witnessed in the phrase “I’ll be ready in a jiffy.” Compare this to the oft-quoted phrase, “I’ll be there in a minute,” used by intent programmers to describe a time frame upwards of one hour. Users can POKE these clock registers with suitable values for their own use. The realtime clock is always updated during the VBLANK interval. Some of the other timer registers (locations 536 to 544; $218 to $220) are not always updated when the OS is executing time critical code. Here’s one way to use the realtime clock for a delay timer:
10 GOSUB 100 . . . 100 POKE 20,0:POKE 19,0 110 IF NOT PEEK(19) THEN 110 120 RETURN
Line 110 waits to see if location 19 returns to zero and, when it does, passes control to the RETURN statement.
See COMPUTE!, August 1982, for a useful program to create a small realtime clock that will continue to display during your BASIC programming. See also De Re Atari for another realtime clock application.
Indirect buffer address register (page zero). Temporary pointer to the current disk buffer.
Command for CIO vector. Stores the CIO command; used to find the offset in the command table for the correct vector to the handler routine.
Disk file manager pointer. Called JMPTBL by DOS; used as vector to FMS.
The disk utilities pointer. Called BUFADR by DOS, it points to the area saved for a buffer for the utilities package (data buffer; DBUF) or for the program area (MEMLO; 743, 744; $2E7, $2E8).
Printer timeout, called every printer status request. Initialized to 30, which represents 32 seconds (the value is 64 seconds per 60 increments in this register); typical timeout for the Atari 825 printer is five seconds. The value is set by your printer handler software. It is updated after each printer status request operation. It gets the specific timeout status from location 748 ($2EC), which is loaded there by SIO.
The new “B” type OS ROMs have apparently solved the problem of timeout that haunted the “A” ROMs; you saw it when the printer or the disk drive periodically went to sleep (timed out) for a few seconds, causing severe anxiety attacks in the owners who thought their Ataris had just mysteriously died. This is compounded when one removes a disk from the drive, believing the I/O process to be finished — only to have the drive start up again after the timeout and trying to write to or read from a nonexistent disk. Usually both the system and the user crash simultaneously at this point. See the appendix for more information on the new ROMs.
Print buffer pointer; points to the current position (byte) in the print buffer. Ranges from zero to the value in location 30.
Print buffer size of printer record for current mode. Normal buffer size and line size equals 40 bytes; double-width print equals 20 bytes (most printers use their own control codes for expanded print); sideways printing equals 29 bytes (Atari 820 printer only). Printer status request equals four. PBUFSZ is initialized to 40. The printer handler checks to see if the same value is in PBPNT and, if so, sends the contents of the buffer to the printer.
Temporary register used by the printer handler for the value of the character being output to the printer.
Locations 32 to 47 ($20 to $2F) are the ZIOCB: Page zero Input-Output Control Block. They use the same structure as the IOCB’s at locations 832 to 959 ($340 to $3BF). The ZIOCB is used to communicate I/O control data between CIO and the device handlers. When a CIO operation is initiated, the information stored in the IOCB channel is moved here for use by the CIO routines. When the operation is finished, the updated information is returned to the user area.
Handler index number. Set by the OS as an index to the device name table for the currently open file. If no file is open on this IOCB (IOCB free), then this register is set to 255 ($FF).
Device number or drive number Called MAXDEV by DOS to indicate the maximum number of devices. Initialized to one.
Command code byte set by the user to define how the rest of the IOCB is formatted, and what I/O action is to be performed.
Status of the last IOCB action returned by the device, set by the OS. May or may not be the same status returned by the STATUS command.
Buffer address for data transfer or the address of the file name for commands such as OPEN, STATUS, etc.
Put byte routine address set by the OS. It is the address minus one byte of the device’s “put one byte” routine. It points to CIO’s “IOCB not OPEN” on a CLOSE statement.
Buffer length byte count used for PUT and GET operations; decreased by one for each byte transferred.
Auxiliary information first byte used in OPEN to specify the type of file access needed.
CIO working variables, also used by some serial port functions. Auxiliary information second byte.
Used by BASIC NOTE and POINT commands for the transfer of disk sector numbers. These next four bytes to location 47 are also labelled as: ICSPRZ and are defined as spare bytes for local CIO use.
The byte being accessed within the sector noted in locations 44 and 45. It is also used for the IOCB Number multiplied by 16. Each IOCB block is 16 bytes long. Other sources indicate that the 6502 X register also contains this information.
Spare byte. Also labelled CIOCHR, it is the temporary storage for the character byte in the current PUT operation.
Internal status storage. The SIO routines in ROM use this byte to store the status of the current SIO operation. See page 166 of the OS User’s Manual for status values. STATUS uses location 793 ($319) as temporary storage. STATUS is also used as a storage register for the timeout, BREAK abort and error values during SIO routines.
Data frame checksum used by SIO: single byte sum with carry to the least significant bit. Checksum is the value of the number of bytes transmitted (255; $FF). When the number of transmitted bytes equals the checksum, a checksum sent flag is set at location 59 ($3B). Uses locations 53773 ($D20D) and 56 ($38) for comparison of values (bytes transmitted).
Pointer to the data buffer, the contents of which are transmitted during an I/O operation, used by SIO and the Device Control Block (DCB); points to the byte to send or receive. Bytes are transferred to the eight-bit parallel serial output holding register or from the input holding register at 53773 ($D20D). This register is a one-byte location used to hold the eight bits which will be transmitted one bit at a time (serially) to or from the device. The computer takes the eight bits for processing when the register is full or replaces another byte in it when empty after a transmission.
Next byte past the end of the SIO and DCB data buffer described above.
Number of command frame retries. Default is 13 ($0D). This is the number of times a device will attempt to carry out a command such as read a sector or format a disk.
Number of device retries. The default is one.
Data buffer full flag (255; $FF equals full).
Receive done flag (255; $FF equals done).
Transmission done flag (255; $FF equals done).
Checksum sent flag (255; $FF equals sent).
Flag for “no checksum follows data.” Not zero means no checksum follows; zero equals checksum follows transmission data.
Cassette buffer pointer: record data index into the portion of data being read or written. Ranges from zero to the current value at location 650 ($28A). When these values are equal, the buffer at 1021 ($3FD) is empty if reading or full if writing. Initialized to 128 ($80).
Inter-record gap type between cassette records, copied from location 43 ($2B; ICAX2Z) in the ZIOCB, stored there from DAUX2 (779; $30B) by the user. Normal gaps are a non-zero positive number; continuous gaps are zero (negative number).
Cassette end of file flag. If the value is zero, an end of file (EOF) has not been reached. Any other number means it has been detected. An EOF record has been reached when the command byte of a data record equals 254 ($FE). See location 1021 ($3FD).
Beep count retain register. Counts the number of beeps required by the cassette handler during the OPEN command for play or record operations; one beep for play, two for record.
Noisy I/O flag used by SIO to signal the beeping heard during disk and cassette I/O. POKE here with zero for blessed silence during these operations. Other numbers return the beep. Initialized to three. The hardware solution to this problem is to turn your speaker volume down. This can also be used to silence the digital track when playing synchronized voice/data tapes. See location 54018.
Critical I/O region flag; defines the current operation as a time-critical section when the value here is non-zero. Checked at the NMI process after the stage one VBLANK has been processed. POKEing any number other than zero here will disable the repeat action of the keys and change the sound of the CTRL-2 buzzer.
Zero is normal; setting CRITIC to a non-zero value suspends a number of OS processes including system software timer counting (timers two, three, four and five; see locations 536 to 558; $218 to $22E). It is suggested that you do not set CRITIC for any length of time. When one timer is being set, CRITIC stops the other timers to do so, causing a tiny amount of time to be “lost.” When CRITIC is zero, both stage one and stage two VBLANK procedures will be executed. When non-zero, only the stage one VBLANK will be processed.
Disk file manager system (FMS) page zero registers (seven bytes).
Page zero buffer pointer to the user filename for disk I/O.
Page zero drive pointer. Copied to here from DBUFAL and DBUFAH; 4905 and 4913 ($1329, $1331). Also used in FMS “free sector,” setup and “get sector” routines.
Zero page sector buffer pointer.
Disk I/O error number. Initialized to 159 ($9F) by FMS.
Cassette boot request flag on coldstart. Checks to see if the START key is pressed and, if so, CKEY is set. Autoboot cassettes are loaded by pressing the START console key while turning the power on. In response to the beep, press the PLAY button on the recorder.
Cassette boot flag. The Atari attempts both a disk and a cassette boot simultaneously. Zero here means no cassette boot was successful. See location 9
Display status and keyboard register used by the display handler. Also used to indicate memory is too small for the screen mode, cursor out of range error, and the BREAK abort status.
Attract mode timer and flag. Attract mode rotates colors on your screen at low luminance levels when the computer is on but no keyboard input is read for a long time (seven to nine minutes). This helps to save your TV screen from “burn-out” damage suffered from being left on and not used. It is set to zero by IRQ whenever a key is pressed, otherwise incremented every four seconds by VBLANK (see locations 18 - 20; $12 - $14). When the value in ATRACT reaches 127 ($7F), it is then set to 254 ($FE) until attract mode is terminated. This sets the flag to reduce the luminance and rotate the colors when the Atari is sitting idle. POKE with 128 ($80) to see this effect immediately: it normally takes seven to nine minutes to enable the attract mode. The OS cannot “attract” color generated by DLI’s, although your DLI routine can, at a loss of time.
Joysticks alone will not reset location 77 to zero. You will have to add a POKE 77,0 to your program periodically or frequently call in a subroutine to prevent the Atari from entering attract mode if you are not using any keyboard input.
Dark attract mask; set to 254 ($FE) for normal brightness when the attract mode is inactive (see location 77). Set to 246 ($F6) when the attract mode is active to guarantee screen color luminance will not exceed 50% . Initialized to 254 ($FE).
Color shift mask; attract color shifter; the color registers are EORd with locations 78 and 79 at the stage two VBLANK (see locations 18 - 20; $12 - $14). When set to zero and location 78 equals 246, color luminance is reduced 50%. COLRSH contains the current value of location 19, therefore is given a new color value every 4.27 seconds.
Bytes 80 to 122 ($50 to $7A) are used by the screen editor and display handler.
Temporary register used by the display handler in moving data to and from screen. Also called TMPCHR.
Same as location 80. It is used also to hold the number of Display List entries.
Column of the left margin of text (GR.0 or text window only). Zero is the value for the left edge of the screen; LMARGN is initialized to two. You can POKE the margin locations to set them to your specific program needs, such as POKE 82,10 to make the left margin start ten locations from the edge of the screen.
Right margin of the text screen initialized to 39 ($27). Both locations 82 and 83 are user-alterable, but ignored in all GRAPHICS modes except zero and the text window. Margins work with the text window and blackboard mode and are reset to their default values by pressing RESET. Margins have no effect on scrolling or the printer. However, DELETE LINE and INSERT LINE keys delete or insert 40 character lines (or delete one program line), which always start at the left margin and wrap around the screen edge back to the left margin again. The right margin is ignored in the process. Also, logical lines are always three physical lines no matter how long or short you make those lines.
The beep you hear when you are coming to the end of the logical line works by screen position independent of the margins. Try setting your left margin at 25 (POKE 82,25) and typing a few lines of characters. Although you have just a few characters beyond 60, the buzzer will still sound on the third line of text.
Current graphics or text screen cursor row, value ranging from zero to 191 ($BF) depending on the current GRAPHICS mode (maximum number of rows, minus one). This location, together with location 85 below, defines the cursor location for the next element to be read/written to the screen. Rows run horizontally, left to right across the TV screen. Row zero is the topmost line; row 192 is the maximum value for the bottom-most line.
Current graphics or text mode cursor column; values range from zero to 319 (high byte, for screen mode eight) depending on current GRAPHICS mode (maximum number of columns minus one). Location 86 will always be zero in modes zero through seven. Home position is 0,0 (upper left-hand corner). Columns run vertically from the top to the bottom down the TV screen, the leftmost column being number zero, the rightmost column the maximum value in that mode. The cursor has a complete top to bottom, left to right wraparound on the screen.
ROWCRS and COLCRS define the cursor location for the next element to be read from or written to in the main screen segment of the display. For the text window cursor, values in locations 656 to 667 ($290 to $29B) are exchanged with the current values in locations 84 to 95 ($54 to $5F), and location 123 ($7B) is set to 255 ($FF) to indicate the swap has taken place. ROWCRS and COLCRS are also used in the DRAW and FILL functions to contain the values of the endpoint of the line being drawn. The color of the line is kept in location 763 ($2FB). These values are loaded into locations 96 to 98 ($60 to $62) so that ROWCRS and COLCRS may be altered during the operation.
BASIC’s LOCATE statement not only examines the screen, but also moves the cursor one position to the right at the next PRINT or PUT statement. It does this by updating locations 84 and 85, above. You can override the cursor advance by saving the contents of the screen before the LOCATE command, then restoring them after the LOCATE. Try:
100 REM: THE SCREEN MUST HAVE BEEN OPENED FOR READ OR READ/WRITE PREVIOUSLY 110 LOOK=PEEK(84):SEE=PEEK(85) 120 LOCATE X,Y,THIS 130 POKE 84,LOOK:POKE 85,SEE
Note that CHR$(253) is a non-printing character — the bell — and doesn’t affect the cursor position.
See COMPUTE!, August 1981, for an example of using COLCRS for dynamic data restore and updating with the screen editor and the IOCBs.
Display mode/current screen mode. Labelled CRMODE by (*M). DINDEX contains the number obtained from the low order four bits of most recent open AUX1 byte. It can be used to fool the OS into thinking you are in a different GRAPHICS mode by POKEing DINDEX with a number from zero to 11. POKE with seven after you have entered GRAPHICS mode eight, and it will give you a split screen with mode seven on top and mode eight below. However, in order to use both halves of the screen, you will have to modify location 89 (below) to point to the area of the screen you wish to DRAW in. (See Your Atari 400/800, pp. 280 - 283.)
Watch for the cursor out-of-range errors (number 141) when changing GRAPHICS modes in this manner and either PRINTing or DRAWing to the new mode screen. POKE 87 with the BASIC mode number, not the ANTIC mode number. Did you know you can use PLOT and DRAWTO in GR.0? Try this:
10 GR.0 20 PLOT 0,0:DRAWTO 10,10:DRAWTO 0,10 30 DRAWTO 39,0:DRAWTO 20,23:DRAWTO 0,20 40 GOTO 40
You can also set the text window for PRINT and PLOT modes by POKEing 87 with the graphics mode for the window. Then you must POKE the address of the top left corner of the text window into 88 and 89 ($58, $59). The screen mode of the text window is stored at location 659 ($293).
You may have already discovered that you cannot call up the GTIA modes from a direct command. Like the +16 GRAPHICS modes, they can only be called up during a program, and the screen display will be reset to GR.0 on the first INPUT or PRINT (not PRINT#6) statement executed in these modes.
Since this location only takes BASIC modes, you can’t POKE it with the other ANTIC modes such as “E”, the famous “seven-and-a-half” mode which offers higher resolution than seven and a four color display (used in Datasoft’s Micropainter program). If you’re not drawing to the screen, simply using it for display purposes, you can always go into the Display List and change the instructions there. But if you try to draw to the screen, you risk an out-of-bounds error (error number 141).
See Creative Computing, March 1982, for an excellent look at mode 7½. The short subroutine below can be used to change the Display List to GR.7½:
1000 GRAPHICS 8+16:DLIST=PEEK(560)+PEEK(561)*256:POKE DLIST+3,78 1010 FOR CHANGE=DLIST+6 TO DLIST+204:IF PEEK(CHANGE)=15 THEN POKE CHANGE,14 1020 IF PEEK(CHANGE)=79 THEN POKE CHANGE,78:NEXT CHANGE 1030 POKE 87,7:RETURN
(Actually, 15 ($F) is the DL number for the maximum memory mode; it also indicates modes eight through eleven. The DL’s for these modes are identical.) Fourteen is the ANTIC E mode; GR.7½. This program merely changes GR.8 to mode E in the Display List. The value 79 is 64 + 15; mode eight screen with BIT 6 set for a Load Memory Scan (LMS) instruction (see the DL information in locations 560, 561; $230, $231). It does not check for other DL bits.
You can also POKE 87 with the GTIA values (nine to eleven). To get a pseudo-text window in GTIA modes, POKE the mode number here and then POKE 623 with 64 for mode nine, 128 for mode ten, and 192 for mode eleven, then POKE 703 with four, in program mode. (In command mode, you will be returned to GR.0.) You won’t be able to read the text in the window, but you will be able to write to it. However, to get a true text window, you’ll need to use a Display List Interrupt (see COMPUTE!, September 1982). If you don’t have the GTIA chip, it is still possible to simulate those GRAPHICS modes by using DINDEX with changes to the Display List Interrupt. See COMPUTE!, July 1981, for an example of simulating GR.10.
The lowest address of the screen memory, corresponding to the upper left corner of the screen (where the value at this address will be displayed). The upper left corner of the text window is stored at locations 660, 661 ($294, $295). You can verify this for yourself by:
WINDOW = PEEK(88) + PEEK(89) * 256:POKE WINDOW,33
This will put the letter “A” in the upper left corner in GR.0, 1 and 2. In other GRAPHICS modes, it will print a colored block or bar. To see this effect, try:
5 REM FIRST CLEAR SCREEN 10 GRAPHICS Z:IF Z>59 THEN END 15 SCREEN=PEEK(88)+PEEK(89)*256 20 FOR N=0 TO 255:POKE SCREEN+N,N 25 NEXT N:FOR N=1 TO 300:NEXT N:Z=Z+1 30 GOTO 10
You will notice that you get the Atari internal character code, not the ATASCII code. See also locations 560, 561 ($230, $231) and 57344 ($E000).
How do you find the entire screen RAM? First, look at the chart below and find your GRAPHICS mode. Then you multiply the number of rows-per-screen type by the number of bytes-per-line. This will tell you how many bytes each screen uses. Add this value, minus one, to the address specified by SAVMSC. However, if you subtract MEMTOP (locations 741, 742; $2E5, $2E6) from RAMTOP (106; $6A * 256 for the number of bytes), you will see that there is more memory reserved than just the screen area. The extra is taken up by the display list or the text window, or is simply not used (see the second chart below).
Mode 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9-12 Rows Full 24 24 12 24 48 48 96 96 192 192 Split ── 20 10 20 40 40 80 80 160 ── Bytes per Line 40 20 20 10 10 20 20 40 40 40 Columns per Line 40 20 20 40 80 80 160 160 320 80 Memory (1) 993 513 261 273 537 1017 2025 3945 7900 7900 Memory (2) Full 992 672 420 432 696 1176 2184 4200 8138 8138 Split ── 674 424 434 694 1174 2174 4190 8112 ──
(1) According to the Atari BASIC Reference Manual, p. 45; OS User’s Manual, p. 172, and Your Atari 400/800, p. 360.
(2) According to Your Atari 400/800, p. 274, and Atari Microsoft Basic Manual, p. 69. This is also the value you get when you subtract MEMTOP from RAMTOP (see above).
For example, to POKE the entire screen RAM in GR.4, you would find the start address of the screen (PEEK(88) + PEEK(89) * 256), then use a FOR-NEXT loop to POKE all the locations specified above:
10 GRAPHICS 4:SCRN=PEEK(88)+PEEK(89)*256 20 FOR LOOP=SCRN TO SCRN+479:REM 48 ROWS * 10 BYTES - 1 30 POKE LOOP,35:NEXT LOOP
Why the minus one in the calculation? The first byte of the screen is the first byte in the loop. If we add the total size, we will go one byte past the end of the soreen, so we subtract one from the total. Here’s how to arrive at the value for the total amount of memory located for screen use, display list and Text window:
Total memory allocation for the screen Screen display Display List ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── Text unused bytes screen unused used GR window always cond. use bytes bytes Total ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── 0 ... none none 960 none 32 992 1 160 none 80 400 none 34 674 2 160 none 40 200 none 24 424 3 160 none 40 200 none 34 434 4 160 none 80 400 none 54 694 5 160 none 160 800 none 54 1174 6 160 none 320 1600 none 94 2174 7 160 none 640 3200 96 94 4190 8 160 16 1280 6400 80 176 8112
The number of bytes from RAMTOP (location 106; $6A) is counted from the left text window column towards the total column. MEMTOP (741, 742; $2E5, $2E6) points to one byte below RAMTOP * 256 minus the number of bytes in the total column. If 16 is added to the GRAPHICS mode (no text window), then the conditional unused bytes are added to the total. Then the bytes normally added for the text window become unused, and the Display List expands slightly. (See COMPUTE!, September 1981.)
When you normally PRINT CHR$(125) (clear screen), Atari sends zeroes to the memory starting at locations 88 and 89. It continues to do this until it reaches one byte less than the contents of RAMTOP (location 106; $6A). Here is a potential source of conflict with your program, however: CHR$(125) — CLEAR SCREEN — and any GRAPHICS command actually continue to clear the first 64 ($40) bytes above RAMTOP!
It would have no effect on BASIC since BASIC is a ROM cartridge. The OS Source Listing seems to indicate that it ends at RAMTOP, but Atari assumed that there would be nothing after RAMTOP, so no checks were provided. Don’t reserve any data within 64 bytes of RAMTOP or else it will be eaten by the CLEAR SCREEN routine, or avoid using a CLEAR SCREEN or a GRAPHICS command. Scrolling the text window also clears 800 bytes of memory above RAMTOP.
You can use this to clear other areas of memory by POKEing the LSB and MSB of the area to be cleared into these locations. Your routine should always end on a $FF boundary (RAMTOP indicates the number of pages). Remember to POKE back the proper screen locations or use a GRAPHICS command immediately after doing so to set the screen right. Try this:
10 BOTTOM=30000:TOP=36863:REM LOWEST AND HIGHEST ADDRESS TO CLEAR = $7530 & $8FFF 20 RAMTOP=PEEK(106):POKE 106,INT(TOP+1/256) 30 TEST=INT(BOTTOM/256):POKE 89,TEST 40 POKE 88,BOTTOM-256*TEST 50 PRINT CHR$(125):POKE 106,RAMTOP 60 GRAPHICS 0
This will clear the specified memory area and update the address of screen memory. If you don’t specify TOP, the CLEAR SCREEN will continue merrily cleaning out memory and, most likely, will cause your program to crash. Use it with caution. Here’s a means to SAVE your current GR.7 screen display to disk using BASIC:
1000 SCREEN=PEEK(88)+PEEK(89)*256 1010 OPEN #2,8,0,"D:picturename" 1020 MODE=PEEK(87):PUT #2,MODE:REM SAVE GR. MODE 1030 FOR SCN=0 TO 4:COL PEEK(708+SCN):PUT #2,COL:NEXT SCN:REM SAVE COLOR REGISTERS 1040 FOR TV=SCREEN TO SCREEN+3199:BYTE=PEEK(TV):PUT #2,BYTE:NEXT TV:CLOSE #2
To use this with other screen modes, you will have to change the value of 3199 in line 1040 to suit your screen RAM (see the chart above). For example, GR.7+16 would require 3839 bytes (3840 minus one). You can use the same routine with cassette by using device C:. To retrieve your picture, you use GET#2 and POKE commands. You will, however, find both routines very slow. Using THE CIO routine at 58454 ($E456) and the IOCBs, try this machine language save routine:
10 DIM ML$(10),B$(10):GR. 8+16 20 B$="your picture name":Q=PEEK(559) 30 FOR N=1 TO 6:READ BYTE:ML$(N,N)=CHR$(BYTE):NEXT N 35 DATA 104,162,16,76,86,228 36 REM PLA,LDX,$10,JMP $E456 40 OPEN #1,4,0,B$ 50 POKE 849,1:POKE 850,7:POKE 852,PEEK(88):POKE 853,PEEK(89):POKE 856,70:POKE 857,30:POKE 858,4 55 REM THESE POKES SET UP THE IOCB 60 POKE 559,0:REM TURN OFF THE SCREEN TO SPEED THINGS UP 70 X=USR(ADR(ML$)):CLOSE #1 80 POKE 559,Q:REM TURN IT BACK ON AGAIN
Note that there is no provision to SAVE the color registers in this program, so I suggest you have them SAVEd after you have SAVEd the picture. It will make it easier to retrieve them if they are at the end of the file. You will have to make suitable adjustments when SAVEing a picture in other than GR.8+16 — such as changing the total amount of screen memory to be SAVEd, POKEd into 856 and 857. Also, you will need a line such as 1000 GOTO 1000 to keep a GTIA or +16 mode screen intact. See the Atari column in InfoAge Magazine, July 1982, for more on this idea. See location 54277 ($D405) for some ideas on scrolling the screen RAM.
There are two techniques used in this hook for calling a machine language program from BASIC with the USR command. One method is to POKE the values into a specific address — say, page six — and use the starting address for the USR call, such as X = USR(1536). For an example of this technique, see location 632 ($278).
The other technique, used above, is to make a string (ML$) out of the routine by assigning to the elements of the string the decimal equivalents of the machine language code by using a FOR-NEXT and READ-DATA loop. To call this routine, you would use X = USR(ADR(ML$)). This tells the Atari to call the machine language routine located at the address where ML$ is stored. This address will change with program size and memory use. The string method won’t be overwritten by another routine or data since it floats around safely in memory. The address of the string itself is stored by the string/array table at location 140 ($8C).
Previous graphics cursor row. Updated from location 84 ($54) before every operation. Used to determine the starting row for the DRAWTO and XIO 18 (FILL command).
Previous graphics cursor column. Updated from locations 85 and 86 ($55, $56) before every operation. These locations are used by the DRAWTO and XIO 18 (FILL) commands to determine the starting column of the DRAW or FILL
Retains the value of the character under the cursor used to restore that character when the cursor moves
Retains the memory location of the current cursor location. Used with location 93 (above) to restore the character under the cursor when the cursor moves
Point (row) to which DRAWTO and XIO 18 (FILL) will go.
Point (column) to which DRAWTO and XIO 18 (FILL) will go. NEWROW and NEWCOL are initialized to the values in ROWCRS and COLCRS (84 to 86; $54 to $56) above, which represent the destination end point of the DRAW and FILL functions. This is done so that ROWCRS and COLCRS can be altered during these routines.
Position of the cursor at the column in a logical line. A logical line can contain up to three physical lines, so LOGCOL can range between zero and 119. Used by the display handler.
Temporary storage used by the display handler for the Display List address, line buffer (583 to 622; $247 to $26E), new MEMTOP value after DL entry, row column address, DMASK value, data to the right of cursor, scroll, delete, the clear screen routine and for the screen address memory (locations 88, 89; $58, $59).
Also called OPNTMP and TOADR; first byte used in OPEN as temporary storage. Also used by the display handler as temporary storage.
Also called FRMADR. Temporary storage, used with ADRESS above for the data under the cursor and in moving line data on the screen.
RAM size, defined by powerup as passed from TRAMSZ (location 6), given in the total number of available pages (one page equals 256 bytes, so PEEK(106) * 256 will tell you where the Atari thinks the last usable address — byte — of RAM is). MEMTOP (741, 742; $2E5. $2E6) may not extend below this value. In a 48K Atari, RAMTOP is initialized to 160 ($A0), which points to location 40960 ($A000). The user’s highest address will be one byte less than this value.
This is initially the same value as in location 740. PEEK(740) / 4 or PEEK(106) / 4 gives the number of 1K blocks. You can fool the computer into thinking you have less memory than you actually have, thus reserving a relatively safe area for data (for your new character set or player/missile characters, for example) or machine language subroutines by:
POKE(106), PEEK(106) - # of pages you want to reserve.
The value here is the number of memory pages (256-byte blocks) present. This is useful to know when changing GR.7 and GR.8 screen RAM. If you are reserving memory for PM graphics, POKE 54279, PEEK(106) - # of pages you are reserving before you actually POKE 106 with that value. To test to see if you have exceeded your memory by reserving too much memory space, you can use:
10 SIZE=(PEEK(106) - # of pages)*256 20 IF SIZE<=PEEK(144)+PEEK(145)*256 THEN PRINT "TOO MUCH MEMORY USED"
If you move RAMTOP to reserve memory, always issue a GRAPHICS command (even issuing one to the same GRAPHICS mode you are in will work) immediately so that the display list and data are moved beneath the new RAMTOP.
You should note that a GRAPHICS command and a CLEAR command (or PRINT CHR$(125)) actually clear the first 64 bytes above RAMTOP (see location 88; $58 for further discussion). Scrolling the text window of a GRAPHICS mode clears up to 800 ($320) bytes above RAMTOP (the text window scroll actually scrolls an entire GR.0 screen-worth of data, so the unseen 20 lines * 40 bytes equals 800 bytes). PM graphics may be safe (unless you scroll the text window) since the first 384 or 768 bytes (double or single line resolution, respectively) are unused. However, you should take both of these effects into account when writing your programs. To discover the exact end of memory, use this routine (it’s a tad slow):
10 RAMTOP=106:TOP=PEEK(RAMTOP) 20 BYTE=TOP*256:TEST=255-PEEK(BYTE):POKE BYTE,TEST 30 IF PEEK(BYTE)=TEST THEN TOP=TOP+1:POKE BYTE,255-TEST 40 GOTO 20 50 PRINT "MEMORY ENDS AT ";BYTE
One caution: BASIC cannot always handle setting up a display list and display memory for GRAPHICS 7 and GRAPHICS 8 when you modify this location by less than 4K (16 pages; 4096 bytes). Some bizarre results may occur if you use PEEK(106) - 8 in these modes, for example. Use a minimum of 4K (PEEK(106) - 16) to avoid trouble. This may explain why some people have difficulties with player/missile graphics in the hi-res (high resolution; GR.7 and GR.8) modes. See location 54279 ($D407).
Another alternative to reserving memory in high RAM is to save an area below MEMLO, location 743 ($2E7: below your BASIC program). See also MEMTOP, locations 741, 742 ($2E5, $2E6).
Buffer count: the screen editor current logical line size counter.
Editor low byte (AM). Display editor GETCH routine pointer (location 62867 for entry; $F593). Temporary storage; returns the character pointed to by BUFCNT above.
Bit mask used in bit mapping routines by the OS display handler at locations 64235 to 64305 ($FAEB to $FB31). Also used as a display handler temporary storage register.
Pixel justification: the amount to shift the right justified pixel data on output or the amount to shift the input data to right justify it. Prior to the justification process, this value is always the same as that in 672 ($2A0).
ROWAC and COLAC (below) are both working accumulators for the control of row and column point plotting and the increment and decrement functions.
Controls column point plotting.
End point of the line to be drawn. Contains the larger value of either DELTAR or DELTAC (locations 118 and 119, below) to be used in conjunction with ROWAC/COLAC (locations 112 and 114, above) to control the plotting of line points.
Delta row; contains the absolute value of NEWBOW (location 96; $60) minus ROWCRS (location 84; $54).
Delta column; contains the absolute value of NEWCOL (location 97; $61) minus the value in COLCRS (location 85; $55). These delta register values, along with locations 121 and 122 below, are used to define the slope of the line to be drawn.
The row increment or decrement value (plus or minus one).
The column increment or decrement value (plus or minus one). ROWINC and COLINC control the direction of the line drawing routine. The values represent the signs derived from the value in NEWROW (location 96; $60) minus the value in ROWCRS (location 84; $54) and the value in NEWCOL (locations 97, 98; $61, $62) minus the value in COLCRS (locations 85, 86; $55, $56).
Split-screen cursor control. Equal to 255 ($FF) if the text window RAM and regular RAM are swapped; otherwise, it is equal to zero. In split-screen modes, the graphics cursor data and the text window data are frequently swapped in order to get the values associated with the area being accessed into the OS data base locations 84 to 95 ($54 to $5F). SWPFLG helps to keep track of which data set is in these locations.
A character value is moved here before the control and shift logic are processed for it.
Temporary storage byte used by the display handler for the character under the cursor and end of line detection.
Starts out containing the larger value of either DELTAR (location 118; $76) or DELTAC (location 119; $77). This is the number of iterations required to draw a line. As each point on a line is drawn, this value is decremented. When the byte equals zero, the line is complete (drawn).
User and/or BASIC page zero RAM begins here. Locations 128 to 145 ($80 to $91) are for BASIC program pointers; 146 to 202 ($92 to $CA) are for miscellaneous BASIC RAM; 203 to 209 ($CB to $D1) are unused by BASIC, and 210 to 255 ($D2 to $FF) are the floating point routine work area. The Assembler Editor cartridge uses locations 128 to 176 ($80 to $B0) for its page zero RAM. Since the OS doesn’t use this area, you are free to use it in any non-BASIC or non-cartridge environment. If you are using another language such as FORTH, check that program’s memory map to see if any conflict will occur.
See COMPUTE!’s First Book of Atari, pages 26 to 53, for a discussion of Atari BASIC structure, especially that using locations 130 to 137 ($82 to $89). Included in the tutorials are a memory analysis, a line dump, and a renumber utility. See also De Re Atari, BYTE, February 1982, and the locations for the BASIC ROM 40960 to 49151 ($A000 to $BFFF).
Pointer to BASIC’s low memory (at the high end of OS RAM space). The first 256 bytes of the memory pointed to are the token output buffer, which is used by BASIC to convert BASIC statements into numeric representation (tokens; see locations 136, 137; $88, $89). This value is loaded from MEMLO (locations 743, 744; $2E7, $2E8) on initialization or the execution of a NEW command (not on RESET!). Remember to update this value when changing MEMLO to reserve space for drivers or buffers.
When a BASIC SAVE is made, two blocks of information are written: the first block is the seven pointers from LOMEM to STARP (128 to 141; $80 to $8D). The value of LOMEM is subtracted from each of these two-byte pointers in the process, so the first two bytes written will both be zero. The second block contains the following: the variable name table, the variable value table, the tokenized program, and the immediate mode line.
When a BASIC LOAD is made, BASIC adds the value at MEMLO (743, 744; $2E7, $2E8) to each of the two-byte pointers SAVEd as above. The pointers are placed back in page zero, and the values of RUNSTK (142, 143; $8E, $8F) and MEMTOP (144, 145; $90, $91) are set to the value in STARP. Then 256 bytes are reserved above the value in MEMLO for the token output buffer, and the program is read in immediately following this buffer.
When you don’t have DOS or any other application program using low memory loaded, LOMEM points to 1792 ($700). When DOS 2.0 is present, it points to 7420 ($1CFC). When you change your drive and data buffer defaults (see 1801, 1802; $709, $70A), you will raise or lower this figure by 128 bytes for each buffer added or deleted, respectively. When you boot up the RS-232 handler, add another 1728 ($6C0) bytes used.
LOMEM is also called ARGOPS by BASIC when used in expression evaluation. When BASIC encounters any kind of expression, it puts the immediate results into a stack. ARGOPS points to the same 256 byte area; for this operation it is reserved for both the argument and operator stack. It is also called OUTBUFF for another operation, pointing to the same 256 byte buffer as ARGOPS points to. Used by BASIC when checking a line for syntax and converting it to tokens. This buffer temporarily stores the tokens before moving them to the program.
Beginning address of the variable name table. Variable names are stored in the order input into your program, in ATASCII format. You can have up to 128 variable names. These are stored as tokens representing the variable number in the tokenized BASIC program, numbered from 128 to 255 ($80 to $FF).
The table continues to store variable names, even those no longer used in your program and those used in direct mode entry. It is not cleared by SAVEing your program. LOADing a new program replaces the current VNT with the one it retrieves from the file. You must LIST the program to tape or disk to save your program without these unwanted variables from the table. LIST does not SAVE the variable name or variable value tables with your program. It stores the program in ATASCII, not tokenized form, and requires an ENTER command to retrieve it. You would use a NEW statement to clear the VNT in memory once you have LISTed your program.
Each variable name is stored in the order it was entered, not the ATASCII order. With numeric (scalar) variables, the MSB is set on the last character in a name. With string variables, the last character is a “$” with the MSB (BIT 7) set. With array variables, the last character is a “(” with the MSB set. Setting the MSB turns the character into its inverse representation so it can be easily recognized. You can use variable names for GOSUB and GOTO routines, such as:
10 CALCULATE=1000 . . 100 GOSUB CALCULATE
This can save a lot of bytes for a frequently called routine. But remember, each variable used for a GOSUB or GOTO address uses one of the 128 possible variable names. A disadvantage of using variable names for GOTO and GOSUB references is when you try to use a line renumbering program. Line renumbering programs will not change references to lines with variable names, only to lines with numbered references.
Here’s a small routine you can add to the start of your BASIC program (or the end if you change the line numbers) to print out the variable names used in your program. You call it up with a GOTO statement in direct mode:
1 POKE 1664,PEEK(130):POKE 1665,PEEK(131) 2 IF PEEK(1664)=PEEK(132) THEN IF PEEK(1665)=PEEK(133) THEN STOP 3 PRINT CHR$(PEEK(PEEK(1664)+PEEK(1665)*256)); 4 IF PEEK(PEEK(1664)+PEEK(1665)*256)>127 THEN PRINT ""; 5 IF PEEK(1664)=255 THEN POKE 1664,0:POKE 1665,PEEK(1665)+1:GOTO 2 6 POKE 1664,PEEK(1664)+1:GOTO 2
See COMPUTE!, October 1981.
Pointer to the ending address of the variable name table plus one byte. When fewer than 128 variables are present, it points to a dummy zero byte. When 128 variables are present, this points to the last byte of the last variable name, plus one.
It is often useful to be able to list your program variables; using locations 130 to 133, you can do that by:
10 VARI=PEEK(130)+PEEK(131)*256:REM This gives you the start of the table. 20 FOR VARI=VARI TO PEEK(132)+PEEK(133)*256-1:PRINT CHR$(PEEK(VARI)-128*(PEEK(VARI)>127));CHR$(27+128*(PEEK(VARI)>127));:NEXT VARI 25 REM this finds the end of the variable name table (remember table is end + 1), then PRINTs ASCII characters < 128 30 NUM=0:FOR VARI=PEEK(130)+PEEK(313)*256 TO PEEK(132)+PEEK(131)*256-1:NUM=NUM+(PEEK(VARI)<127):NEXT VARI: PRINT NUM; “Variables in use”
Or try this, for a possibly less opaque example of the same routine:
1000 NUM=0:FOR LOOP=PEEK(130)+PEEK(131)*256 TO PEEK(132)+PEEK(133)*256-1 1010 IF PEEK(LOOP)<128 THEN PRINT CHR$(PEEK(LOOP));:GOTO 1030 1020 PRINT CHR$(PEEK(LOOP)-128):NUM=NUM+1 1030 NEXT LOOP:PRINT; PRINT NUM;"VARIABLES IN USE":END
Address for the variable value table. Eight bytes are allocated for each variable in the name table as follows:
Byte 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Variable ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── Scalar 00 var # six byte BCD constant Array;DIMed 65 var # offset first second unDIMed 64 from DIM + 1 DIM + 1 STARP String;DIMed 129 var # offset length DIM unDIMed 128 from STARP
In scalar (undimensioned numeric) variables, bytes three to eight are the FP number; byte three is the exponent; byte four contains the least significant two decimal digits, and byte eight contains the most significant two decimal digits. In array variables, bytes five and six contain the size plus one of the first dimension of the array (DIM + 1; LSB/MSB), and bytes seven and eight contain the size plus one of the second dimension (the second DIM + 1; LSB/MSB). In string variables, bytes five and six contain the current length of the variable (LSB MSB), and bytes seven and eight contain the actual dimension (up to 32767). There is an undocumented BASIC statement, “COM,” mentioned only in the BASIC Reference Manual’s index, which executes exactly the same as the “DIM” statement (see Your Atari 400/800, p. 346). Originally, it was to be used to implement “common” variables.
In all cases, the first byte is always one of the number listed on the chart above (you will seldom, if ever, see the undimensioned values in a program). This number defines what type of variable information will follow. The next byte, var # (variable number), is in the range from zero to 127. Offset is the number of bytes from the beginning of STARP at locations 140 and 141 ($8C, $8D). Since each variable is assigned eight bytes, you could find the values for each variable by:
1000 VVTP=PEEK(134)+PEEK(135)*256:INPUT VAR:REM VARIABLE NUMBER 1010 FOR LOOP=0 TO 7:PRINT PEEK(VVTP + LOOP + 8*VAR):NEXT LOOP
where VAR is the variable number from zero to 127. If you wish to assign the same value to every element in a DIMed string variable use this simple technique:
10 DIM TEST$(100) 20 TEST$="*":REM or use TEST$(1) 30 TEST$(100)=TEST$ 40 TEST$(2)=TEST$:PRINT TEST$
By assigning the first, last and second variables in the array in that order, your Atari will then assign the same value to the rest of the array. Make sure you make the second and last elements equal to the string, not the character value (i.e don’t use TEXT$(2) = "*").
See De Re Atari for an example of SAVEing the six-byte BCD numbers to a disk file — very useful when dealing with fixed record lengths.
The address of the statement table (which is the beginning of the user’s BASIC program), containing all the tokenized lines of code plus the immediate mode lines entered by the user. Line numbers are stored as two-byte integers, and immediate mode lines are given the default value of line 32768 ($8000). The first two bytes of a tokenized line are the line number, and the next is a dummy byte reserved for the byte count (or offset) from the start of this line to the start of the next line.
Following that is another count byte for the start of this line to the start of the next statement. These count values are set only when tokenization for the line and statement are complete. Tokenization takes place in a 256 byte ($100) buffer that resides at the end of the reserved OS RAM (pointed to by locations 128, 129; $80, $81). To see the starting address of your BASIC line numbers use this routine:
10 STMTAB=PEEK(136)+PEEK(137)*256 20 NUM=PEEK(STMTAB)+PEEK(STMTAB+1)*256 30 IF NUM=32768 THEN END 40 PRINT "LINE NUMBER: ";NUM;" ADDRESS: ";STMTAB 50 STMTAB=STMTAB+PEEK(STMTAB+2) 60 GOTO 20
The August 1982 issue of ANTIC provided a useful program to delete a range of BASIC line numbers. The routine can be appended to your program and even be used to delete itself.
Current BASIC statement pointer, used to access the tokens being currently processed within a line of the statement table. When BASIC is awaiting input, this pointer is set to the beginning of the immediate mode (line 32768).
Using the address of the variable name table, the length, and the current statement (locations 130 to 133, 138, 139), here is a way to protect your programs from being LISTed or LOADed: they can only be RUN! Remember, that restricts you too, so make sure you have SAVEd an unchanged version before you do this:
32000 FOR VARI=PEEK(130)+PEEK(131)*256 TO PEEK(132)+PEEK(133)*256:POKE VARI,155:NEXT VARI 32100 POKE PEEK(138)+PEEK(139)*256+2,0:SAVE "D:filename":NEW
This will cause all variable names to be replaced with a RETURN character. Other characters may be used: simply change 155 for the appropriate ATASCII code for the character desired. Make sure that these are the last two lines of your program and that NEW is the last statement. CLOAD will not work, but a filename with C: will.
The address for the string and array table and a pointer to the end of your BASIC program. Arrays are stored as six-byte binary coded decimal numbers (BCD) while string characters use one bye each. The address of the strings in the table are the same as those returned by the BASIC ADR function. Always use this function under program control, since the addresses in the table change according to your program size. Try:
10 DIM A$(10),B$(10) 20 A$="*":A$(10)=A$:A$(2)=A$ 30 B$="&":B$(10)=B$:B$(2)=B$ 40 PRINT ADR(A$), ADR(B$) 50 PRINT PEEK(140)+PEEK(141)*256:REM ADDRESS OF A$ 60 PRINT PEEK(140)+PEEK(141)*256+10:REM ADRESS OF A$ + 10 BYTES = ADDRESS OF B$
This table is expanded as each dimension is processed by BASIC, reducing available memory. A ten-element numeric array will require 60 bytes for storage. An array variable such as DIM A(100) will cost the program 600 bytes (100 * six per dimensioned number equals 600). On the other hand, a string array such as DIM A$(100) will only cost 100 bytes! It would save a lot of memory to write your arrays as strings and retrieve the array values using the VAL statement. For example:
10 DIM A$(10):A$="1234567890" 20 PRINT VAL(A$) 30 PRINT VAL(A$(4,4)) 40 PRINT VAL(A$(3,3))+VAL(A$(8,9))
See COMPUTE!, June 1982, for a discussion of STARP and VVTP. See De Re Atari for a means to SAVE the string/array area with your program.
Address of the runtime stack which holds the GOSUB entries (four bytes each) and the FOR-NEXT entries (16 bytes each). The POP command in BASIC affects this stack, pulling entries off it one at a time for each POP executed. The stack expands and contracts as necessary while the program is running.
Each GOSUB entry consists of four bytes in this order: a zero to indicate a GOSUB, a two-byte integer line number on which the call occurred, and an offset into that line so the RETURN can come back and execute the next statement.
Each FOR-NEXT entry contains 16 bytes in this order: first, the limit the counter variable can reach; second, the step or counter increment. These two are allocated six bytes each in BCD format (12 bytes total). The 13th byte is the counter variable number with the MSB set; the 14th and 15th are the line number and the 16th is the line offset to the FOR statement. RUNSTK is also called ENDSTAR; it is used by BASIC to point to the end of the string/array space pointed to by STARR above.
Pointer to the top of BASIC memory, the end of the space the program takes up. There may still be space between this address and the display list, the size of which may be retrieved by the FRE(0) command (which actually subtracts the MEMTOP value that is at locations 741 and 742; $2E5, $2E6). Not to be confused with locations 741 and 742, which have the same name but are an OS variable. MEMTOP is also called TOPSTK; it points to the top of the stack space pointed to by RUNSTK above.
When reserving memory using location 106 ($6A) and MEMTOP, here’s a short error-trapping routine you can add:
10 SIZE=(PEEK(106) - # of pages you are reserving)*256 20 IF SIZE<=PEEK(144)+PEEK(145)*256 THEN PRINT " PROGRAM TOO LARGE":END
Locations 146 to 202 ($92 to $CA) are reserved for use by the 8K BASIC ROM.
Locations 176 to 207 ($B0 to $CF) are reserved by the Assembler Editor cartridge for the user’s page zero use. The Assembler debug routine also reserves 30 bytes in page zero, scattered from location 164 ($A4) to 255 ($FF), but they cannot be used outside the debug process. (See De Re Atari, Rev. 1, Appendix A for a list of these available bytes.)
The line where a program was stopped either due to an error or the use of the BREAK key, or a STOP or a TRAP statement occurred. You can use PEEK(186) + PEEK(187) * 256 in a GOTO or GOSUB statement.
The number of the error code that caused the stop or the TRAP. You can use this location in a program in a line such as:
10 IF PEEK(195)<>144 THEN 100
This location specifies the number of columns between TAB stops. The first tab will beat PEEK(201). The default is ten. This is the value between items separated in a PRINT statement by commas — such as PRINT AS, LOOP, C(12) — not by the TAB key spacing.
The minimum number of spaces between TABS is three. If you POKE 201,2, it will be treated as four spaces, and POKE 201,1 is treated as three spaces. POKE 201,0 will cause the system to hang when it encounters a PRINT statement with commas. To change the TAB key settings, see TABMAP (locations 675 to 689; $2A3 - $2B1). PTABW is not reset to the default value by pressing RESET or changing GRAPHICS modes (unlike TABMAP). PTABW works in all GRAPHICS modes, not merely in text modes. The size of the spaces between items depends on the pixel size in the GRAPHICS mode in use. For example, in GR.0, each space is one character wide, while in GR.8 each space is one-half color clock (one dot) wide.
Unused by either the BASIC or the Assembler cartridges.
Unused by BASIC. The only time I have seen any of these unused locations in use is in COMPUTE! (March 1982 and October 1981), when they were used for user sort routines, and in ANTIC (June 1982), where they were used as flags in a graphic demonstration. The bytes from 203 to 209 ($CB to $D1) are the only page zero bytes uncontestably left free by BASIC.
Reserved for BASIC or other cartridge use.
Locations 212 to 255 ($D4 to $FF) are reserved for the floating point package use. The FP routines are in ROM, from locations 55296 to 57393 ($D800 to $E031). These page zero locations may be used if the FP package is not called by the user’s program. However, do not use any of these locations for an interrupt routine, since such routines might occur during an FP routine called by BASIC, causing the system to crash.
Floating Point uses a six-byte precision. The first byte of the Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) number is the exponent (where if BIT 7 equals zero, then the number is positive; if one, then it is negative). The next five bytes are the mantissa. If only that were all there was to it. The BCD format is rather complex and is best explained in chapter eight of De Re Atari.
Floating point register zero; holds a six-byte internal form of the FP number. The value at locations 212 and 213 are used to return a two-byte hexadecimal value in the range of zero to 65536 ($FFFF) to the BASIC program (low byte in 212, high byte in 213). The floating point package, if used, requires all locations from 212 to 255. All six bytes of FR0 can be used by a machine language routine, provided FR0 isn’t used and no FP functions are used by that routine. To use 16 bit values in FP, you would place the two bytes of the number into the least two bytes of FR0 (212, 213; $D4, $D5), and then do a JSR to $D9AA (55722), which will convert the integer to its FP representation, leaving the result in FR0. To reverse this operation, do a JSR to $D9D2 (55762).
FP extra register (?)
Floating point register one; holds a six-byte internal form of the FP number as does FR0. The FP package frequently transfers data between these two registers and uses both for two-number arithmetic operations.
FP register two.
FP spare register.
The value of E (the exponent).
The sign of the FP number.
The sign of the exponent.
The first character flag.
The number of digits to the right of the decimal.
Character (current input) index. Used as an offset to the input text buffer pointed to by INBUFF below.
Input ASCII text buffer pointer; the user’s program line input buffer, used in the translation of ATASCII code to FP values. The result output buffer is at locations 1408 to 1535 ($580 to $5FF).
Also called DEGFLG. When set to zero, all of the trigonometric functions are performed in radians; when set to six, they are done in degrees. BASIC’s NEW command and RESET both restore RADFLG to radians.
Points to the user’s FP number.
Pointer to the user’s second FP number to be used in an operation.
End of the page zero RAM.
Locations 256 to 511 ($100 to $1FF) are the stack area for the OS, DOS and BASIC. This area is page one. Machine language JSR, PHA and interrupts all cause data to be written to page one, and RTS, PLA and RTI instructions all read data from page one. On powerup or RESET, the stack pointer is initialized to point to location 511 ($1FF). The stack then pushes downward with each entry to 256 ($100). In case of overflow, the stack will wrap around from 256 back to 511 again.
Locations 512 to 1151 ($200 to $47F) are used by the OS for working variables, tables and data buffers. In this area, locations 512 to 553 ($200 to $229) are used for interrupt vectors, and locations 554 to 623 ($22A to $26F) are for miscellaneous use. Much of pages two through five cannot be used except by the OS unless specifically noted. A number of bytes are marked as “spare”, i.e., not in use currently. The status of these bytes may change with an Atari upgrade, so their use is not recommended.
There are two types of interrupts: Non-Maskable Interrupts (NMI) processed by the ANTIC chip and Interrupt Requests (IRQ) processed by the POKEY and the PIA chips. NMI’s are for the VBLANK interrupts (VBI’s; 546 to 549, $222 to $225), display list interrupts (DLI) and RESET key interrupts. They initiate the stage one and stage two VBLANK procedures; usually vectored through an OS service routine, they can be vectored to point to a user routine. IRQ’s are for the timer interrupts, peripheral and serial bus interrupts, BREAK and other key interrupts, and 6502 BRK instruction interrupts. They can usually be used to vector to user routines. See NMIST 54287 ($D40F) and IRQEN 53774 ($D20E) for more information. NMI interrupt vectors are marked NMI; IRQ interrupt vectors are marked IRQ.
Refer to the chart below location 534 for a list of the interrupt vectors in the new OS “B” version ROMs.
The vector for NMI Display List Interrupts (DLI): containing the address of the instructions to be executed during a DLI (DLI’s are used to interrupt the processor flow for a few microseconds at the particular screen display line where the bit was set, allowing you to do another short routine such as music, changing graphics modes, etc.). The OS doesn’t use DLI’s; they must be user-enabled, written and vectored through here. The NMI status register at 54287 ($D40F) first tests to see if an interrupt was caused by a DLI and, if so, jumps through VDSLST to the routine written by the user. DLI’s are disabled on powerup, but VBI’s are enabled (see 546 to 549; $222 to $225).
VDSLST is initialized to point to 59315 ($E7B3), which is merely an RTI instruction. To enable DLI’s, you must first POKE 54286 ($D40E) with 192 ($C0); otherwise, ANTIC will ignore your request. You then POKE 512 and 513 with the address (LSB/MSB) of the first assembly language routine to execute during the DLI. You must then set BIT 7 of the Display List instruction(s) where the DLI is to occur. You have only between 14 and 61 machine cycles available for your DLI, depending on your GRAPHICS mode. You must first push any 6502 registers onto the stack, and you must end your DLI with an RTI instruction. Because you are dealing with machine language for your DLI, you can POKE directly into the hardware registers you plan to change, rather than using the shadow registers that BASIC uses.
There is, unfortunately, only one DLI vector address. If you use more than one DLI and they are to perform different activities, then changing the vectoring to point to a different routine must be done by the previous DLI’s themselves.
Another way to accomplish interrupts is during the VBLANK interval with a VBI. One small problem with using DLI’s is that the keyboard “click” routine interferes with the DLI by throwing off the timing, since the click is provided by several calls to the WSYNC register at 54282 ($D40A). Chris Crawford discusses several solutions in De Re Atari, but the easiest of them is not to allow input from the keyboard! See Micro, December 1981, Creative Computing, July 1981 and December 1981. Here’s a short example of a DLI. It will print the lower half of your text screen upside down:
10 START=PEEK(560)+PEEK(561)*256:POKE START+16,130 20 PAGE=1536:FOR PGM=PAGE TO PAGE+7:READ BYTE:POKE PGM,BYTE:NEXT PGM 30 DATA 72,169,4,141,1,212,104,64 40 POKE 512,0:POKE 513,6:POKE 54286,192 50 FOR TEST=1 TO 240:PRINT "SEE ";:NEXT TEST 60 GOTO 60
Another example of a DLI changes the color of the bottom half of the screen. To use it, simply change the PAGE + 7 to PAGE + 10 in the program above and replace line 30 with:
30 DATA 72,169,222,141,10,212,141,24,208,104,64
Finally, delete lines 50 and 60. See also location 54282 ($D40A).
Serial (peripheral) proceed line vector, initialized to 59314 ($E7B2), which is merely a PLA, RTI instruction sequence. It is used when an IRQ interrupt occurs due to the serial I/O bus proceed line which is available for peripheral use. According to De Re Atari, this interrupt is not used and points to a PLA, RTI instruction sequence. This interrupt is handled by the PIA chip and can be used to provide more control over external devices. See the OS Listing, page 33.
Serial (peripheral) interrupt vector, initialized to 59314 ($E7B2). Used for the IRQ interrupt due to a serial bus I/O interrupt. According to De Re Atari, this interrupt is not used and points to a PLA, RTI sequence. This interrupt is processed by PIA. See the OS Listing, page 33.
Software break instruction vector for the 6502 BRK ($00) command (not the BREAK key, which is at location 17; $11), initialized to 59314 ($E7B2). This vector is normally used for setting break points in an assembly language debug operation. IRQ.
POKEY keyboard interrupt vector, used for an interrupt generated when any keyboard key is pressed other than BREAK or the console buttons. Console buttons never generate an interrupt unless one is specifically user-written. VKEYBD can be used to process the key code before it undergoes conversion to ATASCII form. Initialized to 65470 ($FFBE) which is the OS keyboard IRQ routine.
POKEY serial I/O bus receive data ready interrupt vector, initialized to 60177 ($EB11), which is the OS code to place a byte from the serial input port into a buffer. Called INTRVEC by DOS, it is used as an interrupt vector location for an SIO patch. DOS changes this vector to 6691 ($1A23), the start of the DOS interrupt ready service routine. IRQ.
POKEY serial I/O transmit ready interrupt vector, initialized to 60048 (EA90), which is the OS code to provide the next byte in a buffer to the serial output port. DOS changes this vector to 6630 ($19E6), the start of the DOS output needed interrupt routine. IRQ.
POKEY serial bus transmit complete interrupt vector, initialized to 60113 ($EAD1), which sets a transmission done flag after the checksum byte is sent. IRQ.
SIO uses the three last interrupts to control serial bus communication with the serial bus devices. During serial bus communication, all program execution is halted. The actual serial I/O is interrupt driven; POKEY waits and watches for a flag to be set when the requested I/O operation is completed. During this wait, POKEY is sending or receiving bits along the serial bus. When the entire byte has been transmitted (or received), the output needed (VSEROR) or the input ready (VSERIN) IRQ is generated according to the direction of the data flow. This causes the next byte to be processed until the entire buffer has been sent or is full, and a flag for “transmission done” is set. At this point, SIO exits back to the calling routine. You can see that SIO wastes time waiting for POKEY to send or receive the information on the bus.
POKEY timer one interrupt vector, initialized to 59314 ($E7B2), which is a PLA, RTI instruction sequence. Timer interrupts are established when the POKEY timer AUDF1 (53760; $D200) counts down to zero. Values in the AUDF registers are loaded into STIMER at 53769 ($D209). IRQ.
POKEY timer two vector for AUDF2 (53762; $D202), initialized to 59314 ($E7B2). IRQ.
POKEY timer four vector for AUDF4 (53766; $D206), initialized to 59314 ($E7B2). This IRQ is only vectored in the “B” version of the OS ROMs.
The IRQ immediate vector (general). Initialized to 59126 ($E6F6). JMP through here to determine cause of the IRQ interrupt. Note that with the new (“B”) OS ROMs, there is a BREAK key interrupt vector at locations 566, 567 ($236, $237). See 53774 ($D20E) for more information on IRQ interrupts.
The new “B” version OS ROMs change the vectors above as follows:
VDSLST 59280 ($E790) VPRCED 59279 ($E78F) VINTER 59279 ($E78F) VBREAK 59279 ($E78F) VKEYBD NO CHANGE VSERIN 60175 ($EB0F) VSEROR NO CHANGE VSEROC 60111 ($EACF) VTIMR 1-4 59279 ($E78F) VIMIRQ 59142 ($E706) VVBLKI 59310 ($E7AE) VVBLKD 59653 ($E905)
The locations from 536 to 558 ($218 to $22E) are used for the system software timers. Hardware timers are located in the POKEY chip and use the AUDF registers. These timers count backwards every 1/60 second (stage one VBLANK) or 1/30 second (stage two VBLANK) interval until they reach zero. If the VBLANK process is disabled or intercepted, the timers will not be updated. See De Re Atari for information regarding setting these timers in an assembly routine using the SETVBV register (58460; $E45C). These locations are user-accessible and can be made to count time for music duration, game I/O, game clock and other functions.
Software timers are used for durations greater than one VBLANK interval (1/60 second). For periods of shorter duration, use the hardware registers.
System timer one value. Counts backwards from 255. This SIO timer is decremented every stage one VBLANK. When it reaches zero, it sets a flag to jump (JSR) through the address stored in locations 550, 551 ($226, $227). Only the realtime clock (locations 18-20; $12-14), timer one, and the attract mode register (77; $4D) are updated when the VBLANK routine is cut short because time-critical code (location 66; $42 set to non-zero for critical code) is executed by the OS. Since the OS uses timer one for its I/O routines and for timing serial bus operations (setting it to different values for timeout routines), you should use another timer to avoid conflicts or interference with the operation of the system.
System timer two. Decremented at the stage two VBLANK. Can be decremented every stage one VBLANK, subject to critical section test as defined by setting of CRITIC flag (location 66; $42). This timer may miss (skip) a count when time-critical code (CRITIC equals non-zero) is being executed. It performs a JSR through location 552, 553 ($228, $229) when the value counts down to zero.
System timer three. Same as 538. Timers three, four, and five are stopped when the OS sets the CRITIC flag to non-zero as well. The OS uses timer three to OPEN the cassette recorder and to set the length of time to read and write tape headers. Any prior value in the register during this function will be lost.
System timer four. Same as 538 ($21A).
System timer five. Same as 538 ($21A). Timers three, four, and five all set flags at 554, 556 and 558 ($22A, $22C, $22E), respectively, when they decrement to zero.
VBLANK immediate register. Normally jumps to the stage one VBLANK vector NMI interrupt processor at location 59345 ($E7D1); in the new OS “B” ROMs; 59310; $E7AE). The NMI status register tests to see if the interrupt was due to a VBI (after testing for a DLI) and, if so, vectors through here to the VBI routine, which may be user-written. On powerup, VBI’s are enabled and DLI’s are disabled. See location 512; $200.
VBLANK deferred register; system return from interrupt, initialized to 59710 ($E93E, in the new OS “B” ROMs; 59653; $E905), the exit for the VBLANK routine. NMI.
These two VBLANK vectors point to interrupt routines that occur at the beginning of the VBLANK time interval. The stage one VBLANK routine is executed; then location 66 ($42) is tested for the time-critical nature of the interrupt and, if a critical code section has been interrupted, the stage two VBLANK routine is not executed with a JMP made through the immediate vector VVBLKI. If not critical, the deferred interrupt VVBLKD is used. Normally the VBLANK interrupt bits are enabled (BIT 6 at location 54286; $D40E is set to one). To disable them, clear BIT 6 (set to zero).
The normal sequence for VBLANK interrupt events is: after the OS test, JMP to the user immediate VBLANK interrupt routine through the vector at 546, 547 (above), then through SYSVBV at 58463 ($E45F). This is directed by the OS through the VBLANK interrupt service routine at 59345 ($E7D1) and then on to the user-deferred VBLANK interrupt routine vectored at 548, 549. It then exits the VBLANK interrupt routine through 58466 ($E462) and an RTI instruction.
If you are changing the VBLANK vectors during the interrupt routine, use the SETVBV routine at 58460 ($E45C). An immediate VBI has about 3800 machine cycles of time to use a deferred VBI has about 20,000 cycles. Since many of these cycles are executed while the electron beam is being drawn, it is suggested that you do not execute graphics routines in deferred VBI’s. See the table of VBLANK processes at the end of the map area.
if you create your own VBI’s, terminate an immediate VBI with a JMP to 58463 ($E45F) and a deferred VBI with a JMP to 58466 ($E462). To bypass the OS VBI routine at 59345 ($E7D1) entirely, terminate your immediate VBI with a JMP to 58466 ($E462).
Here’s an example of using a VBI to create a flashing cursor. It will also blink any text you display in inverse mode.
10 FOR BLINK=1664 TO 1680:READ BYTE:POKE BLINK,BYTE:NEXT BLINK 20 POKE 548,128:POKE 549,6 30 DATA 8,72,165,20,41,16,74,74,74,141 40 DATA 243,2,104,40,76,62,233
To restore the normal cursor and display, POKE 548,62 and POKE 549,233.
System timer one jump address, initialized to 60400 ($EBF0). When locations 536, 537 ($218, $219) reach (count down to) zero, the OS vectors through here (jumps to the location specified by these two addresses). You can set your machine code routine address here for execution when timer one reaches (counts down to) zero. Your code should end with the RTS instruction. Problems may occur when timer values are set greater than 255, since the 6502 cannot manipulate 16-bit values directly (a number in the range of zero to 255 is an eight-bit value; if a value requires two bytes to store, such as a memory location, it is a 16-bit value). Technically, a VBLANK interrupt could occur when one timer byte is being initialized and the other not yet set. To avoid this, keep timer values less than 255. See the Atari OS User’s Manual, page 106, for details.
Since the OS uses timer one, it is recommended that you use timer two instead, to avoid conflicts with the operation of the Atari. Initialized to 60396 ($EBEA) in the old ROMs, 60400 ($EBF0) in the new ROMs. NMI
System timer two jump address. Not used by the OS, available to user to enter the address of his or her own routine to JMP to when the timer two (538, 539; $21A, $21B) count reaches zero. Initialized to zero; the address must be user specified. NMI
System timer three flag, set when location 540, 541 ($21C, $21D) reaches zero. This register is also used by DOS as a timeout flag.
Software repeat timer, controlled by the IRQ device routine. It establishes the initial 1/2 second delay before a key will repeat. Stage two VBLANK establishes the 1/10 second repeat rate, decrements the timer and implements the auto repeat logic. Every time a key is pressed, STIMER is set to 48 ($30). Whenever SRTIMR is equal to zero and a key is being continuously pressed, the value of that key is continually stored in CH, location 764 ($2FC).
System timer four flag. Set when location 542, 543 ($21E, $21F) counts down to zero.
Temporary register used by the SETVBL routine at 58460 ($E45C).
System timer five flag. Set when location 558, 559 ($22E, $22F) counts down to zero.
Direct Memory Access (DMA) enable. POKEing with zero allows you to turn off ANTIC and speed up processing by 30%. Of course, it also means the screen goes blank when ANTIC is turned off! This is useful to speed things up when you are doing a calculation that would take a long time. It is also handy to turn off the screen when loading a drawing, then turning it on when the screen is loaded so that it appears instantly, complete on the screen. To use it you must first PEEK(559) and save the result in order to return your screen to you. Then POKE 559,0 to turn off ANTIC. When you are ready to bring the screen back to life, POKE 559 with the number saved earlier.
This location is the shadow register for 54272 ($D400), and the number you PEEKed above defines the playfield size, whether or not the missiles and players are enabled, and the player size resolution. To enable your options by using POKE 559, simply add up the values below to obtain the correct number to POKE into SDMCTL. Note that you must choose only one of the four playfield options appearing at the beginning of the list:
Option Decimal Bit No playfield 0 0 Narrow playfield 1 0 Standard playfield 2 0,1 Wide playfield 3 0,1 Enable missle DMA 4 2 Enable player DMA 8 3 Enable player and missile DMA 12 2,3 One line player resolution 16 4 Enable instructions to fetch DMA 32 5 (see below)
Note that two-line player resolution is the default and that it is not necessary to add a value to 559 to obtain it. I have included the appropriate bits affected in the table above. The default is 34 ($22).
The playfield is the area of the TV screen you will use for display, text, and graphics. Narrow playfield is 128 color clocks (32 characters wide in GR.0), standard playfield is 160 color clocks (40 characters), and wide playfield is 192 color clocks wide (48 characters). A color clock is a physical measure of horizontal distance on the TV screen. There are a total of 228 color clocks on a line, but only some of these (usually 176 maximum) will be visible due to screen limitations. A pixel, on the other hand, is a logical unit which varies in size with the GRAPHICS mode. Due to the limitations of most TV sets, you will not be able to see all of the wide playfield unless you scroll into the offscreen portions. BIT 5 must be set to enable ANTIC operation; it enables DMA for fetching the display list instructions.
Starting address of the display list. The display list is an instruction set to tell ANTIC where the screen data is and how to display it. These locations are the shadow for 54274 and 54275 ($D402, $D403). You can also find the address of the DL by PEEKing one byte above the top of free memory:
PRINT PEEK(741) + PEEK(742) * 256 + 1.
However, 560 and 561 are more reliable pointers since custom DL’s can be elsewhere in memory. Atari standard display lists simply instruct the ANTIC chip as to which types of mode lines to use for a screen and where the screen data may be found in memory. Normally, a DL is between 24 and 256 bytes long (most are less than 100 bytes, however), depending on your GRAPHICS mode (see location 88,89 for a chart of DL sizes and screen display use).
By altering the DL, you can mix graphics modes on the same screen; enable fine scrolling; change the location of the screen data; and force interrupts (DLI’s) in order to perform short machine language routines.
DL bytes five and six are the addresses of the screen memory data, the same as in locations 88 and 89 ($58, $59). Bytes four, five, and six are the first Load Memory Scan (LMS) instruction. Byte four tells ANTIC what mode to use; the next two bytes are the location of the first byte of the screen RAM (LSB/MSB). Knowing this location allows you to write directly to the screen by using POKE commands (you POKE the internal character codes, not the ATASCII codes — see the BASIC Reference Manual, p. 55).
For example, the program below will POKE the internal codes to the various screen modes. You can see not only how each screen mode handles the codes, but also roughly where the text window is in relation to the display screen (the 160 bytes below RAMTOP). Note that the GTIA modes have no text window. If you don’t have the GTIA chip, your Atari will default to GRAPHICS 8, but with GTIA formatting.
1 TRAP 10:GRAPHICS Z 5 SCREEN=PEEK(560)+PEEK(561)*256 6 TV=SCREEN+4:TELE=SCREEN+5 8 DISPLAY=PEEK(TV)+PEEK(TELE)*256 10 FOR N=0 TO 255:POKE DISPLAY+N,N:NEXT N 20 DISPLAY=DISPLAY+N 30 IF DISPLAY>40959 THEN Z=Z+1:GOTO 1 40 GOTO 10 50 Z=Z+1:IF Z>60 THEN END 60 GOTO 1
Here’s another short program which will allow you to examine the DL in any GRAPHICS mode:
10 REM CLEAR SCREEN FIRST 20 PRINT "ENTER GRAPHICS MODE":REM ADD 16 TO THE MODE TO SUPPRESS THE TEXT WINDOW 30 INPUT A:GRAPHICS A 40 DLIST=PEEK(560)+PEEK(561)*256 50 LOOK=PEEK(DLIST):PRINT LOOK;" "; 60 IF LOOK<>65 THEN DLIST=DLIST+1:GOTO 50 70 LPRINT PEEK(DLIST+1);" ";PEEK(DLIST+2) 80 END
The value 65 in the DL is the last instruction encountered. It tells ANTIC to jump to the address in the next two bytes to re-execute the DL, and wait for the next VBLANK. If you don’t have a printer, change the LPRINT commands to PRINT and modify the routine to save the data in an array and PRINT it to the screen after (in GR.0).
If you would like to examine the locations of the start of the Display List, screen, and text window, try:
5 REM CLEAR SCREEN FIRST 6 INPUT A:GRAPHICS A 10 DIM DLIST$(10),SAVMSC$(10),TXT$(10) 15 DLIST$="DLIST":SAVMSC$="SAVMSC":TXT$="TEXT" 20 DLIST=PEEK(560)+PEEK(561)*256 30 SAV=PEEK(88)+PEEK(89)*256:TXT=PEEK(660)+PEEK(661)*256 40 PRINT DLIST$;" "; DLIST,SAVMSC$;" ";SAV 50 PRINT TXT$;" "; TEXT 60 INPUT A:GRAPHICS A:GOTO 20
Since an LMS is simply a map mode (graphics) or character mode (text) instruction with BIT six set, you can make any or all of these instructions into LMS instructions quite easily, pointing each line to a different RAM area if necessary. This is discussed in De Re Atari on implementing horizontal scrolling.
DL’s can be used to help generate some of the ANTIC screen modes that aren’t supported by BASIC, such as 7.5 (ANTIC mode E) or ANTIC mode three, the lowercase with descenders mode (very interesting; ten scan lines in height which allow true descenders on lowercase letters).
If you create your own custom DL, you POKE its address here. Hitting BESET or changing GRAPHICS modes will restore the OS DL address, however. The display list instruction is loaded into a special register called the Display Instruction Register (IR). which processes the three DL instructions (blank, jump, or display). It cannot be accessed directly by the programmer in either BASIC or machine language. A DL cannot cross a 1K boundary unless a jump instruction is used.
There are only four display list instructions: blank line (uses BAK color), map mode, text mode, and jump. Text (character mode) instructions and map mode (graphics) instructions range from two to 15 ($2 to $F) and are the same as the ANTIC GRAPHICS modes. A DL instruction byte uses the following conventions (functions are enabled when the bit is set to one):
Bit Decimal Function 7 128 Display List Interrupt when set (enabled equals one) 6 64 Load Memory Scan. Next two bytes are the LSB/MSB of the data to load. 5 32 Enable vertical fine scrolling. 4 16 Enable horizontal fine scrolling. 3-0 8-1 Mode 0 0 1 0 Character to Modes 0 1 1 1 . . . . . . . 1 0 0 0 Map to Modes 1 1 1 1
The above bits may be combined (i.e., DLI, scrolling and LMS together) if the user wishes.
Special DL instructions (with decimal values):
Blank 1 line = 0 5 lines = 64 2 lines = 16 6 lines = 80 3 lines = 32 7 lines = 96 4 lines = 48 8 lines = 112
Jump instruction (JMP) = zero (three-byte instruction).
Jump and wait for Vertical Blank (JVP) = 65 (three-byte instruction).
Special instructions may be combined only with DL interrupt instructions.
A Display List Interrupt is a special form of interrupt that takes place during the screen display when the ANTIC encounters a DL instruction with the interrupt BIT 7 set. See location 512 ($200) for DLI information.
Since DL’s are too large a topic to cover properly in this manual, I suggest you look in the many magazines (i.e., Creative Computing, July 1981, August 1981; Micro, December 1981; Softside, #30 to 32, and BYTE, December 1981) for a more detailed explanation
Serial port control register, shadow for 53775 ($D20F). Setting the bits in this register to one has the following effect:
Bit Decimal Function 0 1 Enable the keyboard debounce circuit. 1 2 Enable the keyboard scanning circuit. 2 4 The pot counter completes a read within two scan lines instead of one frame time. 3 8 Serial output transmitted as two-tone instead of logic true/false (POKEY two-tone mode). 4-6 16-64 Serial port mode control. 7 128 Force break; serial output to zero.
Initialized to 19 ($13) which sets bits zero, one and four.
No OS use. See the note at location 651 regarding spare bytes.
Light pen horizontal value shadow for 54284 ($D40C). Values range from zero to 227.
Light pen vertical value: shadow for 54285 ($D40D). Value is the same as VCOUNT register for two-line resolution (see 54283; $D40B). Both light pen values are modified when the trigger is pressed (pulled low). The light pen positions are not the same as the normal screen row and column positions. There are 96 vertical positions, numbered from 16 at the top to 111 at the bottom, each one equivalent to a scan line. Horizontal positions are marked in color clocks. There are 228 horizontal positions, numbered from 67 at the left. When the LPENH value reaches 255, it is reset to zero and begins counting again by one to the rightmost edge, which has a value of seven.
Obviously, because of the number of positions readable and the small size of each, a certain leeway must be given by the programmer when using light pen readouts on a program. At the time of this writing, Atari had not yet released its light pen onto the market, although other companies have.
BREAK key interrupt vector. This vector is available only with the version “B” OS ROMs, not the earlier version. You can use this vector to write your own BREAK key interrupt routine. Initialized to 59220 ($E754).
Two spare bytes.
Four-byte command frame buffer (CFB) address for a device — used by SIO while performing serial I/O, not for user access. CDEVIC is used for the SIO bus ID number The other three CFB bytes are:
The SIO bus command code.
Command auxiliary byte one, loaded from location 778 ($30A) by SIO.
Command auxiliary byte two, loaded from location 779 ($30B) by SIO.
Temporary RAM register for SIO.
SIO error flag; any device error except the timeout error (time equals zero).
Disk flags read from the first byte of the boot file (sector one) of the disk.
The number of disk boot sectors read from the first disk record.
The address for where the disk boot loader will be put. The record just read will be moved to the address specified here, followed by the remaining records to be read. Normally, with DOS, this address is 1792 ($700), the value also stored temporarily in RAMLO at 4, 5. Address 62189 ($F2ED) is the OS disk boot routine entry point (DOBOOT).
Coldstart flag. Zero is normal, if zero, then pressing RESET will not result in reboot. If POKEd with one (powerup in progress flag), the computer will reboot whenever the RESET key is pressed. Any non-zero number indicates the initial powerup routine is in progress.
If you create an AUTORUN.SYS file, it should end with an RTS instruction. If not, it should POKE 580 with zero and POKE 9 with one. You can turn any binary file that boots when loaded with DOS menu selection “L” into an auto-boot file simply by renaming it “AUTORUN.SYS”. Be careful not to use the same name for any two files on the same disk.
When this is combined with the disabling of the BREAK key discussed in location 16 ($10) and the program protection scheme discussed in location 138 ($8A), you have the means to protect your BASIC software fairly effectively from being LISTed or examined, although not from being copied.
Disk time-out register (the address of the OS worst case disk timeout). It is said by many sources to be set to 160 at initialization which represents a 171 second time-out, but my system shows a value of 224 on initialization. Timer values are 64 seconds for each 60 units of measurement expressed.
It is updated after each disk status request to contain the value of the third byte of the status frame (location 748; $2EC). All disk operations have a seven second time-out (except FORMAT), established by the disk handler (you had noticed that irritating little delay, hadn’t you?). The “sleeping disk syndrome” (the printer suffers from this malady as well) happens when your drive times out, or the timer value reaches zero. This has been cured by the new OS “B” version ROMs.
Forty-byte character line buffer, used to temporarily buffer one physical line of text when the screen editor is moving screen data. The pointer to this buffer is stored in 100, 101 ($64, $65) during the routine.
Priority selection register, shadow for 53275 ($D01B). Priority options select which screen objects will be “in front” of others. It also enables you to use all four missiles as a fifth player and allows certain overlapping players to have different colors in the areas of overlap. You add your options up as in location 559, prior to POKEing the total into 623. In this case, choose only one of the four priorities stated at the beginning. BAK is the background or border. You can also use this location to select one of GTIA GRAPHICS modes nine, ten, or eleven.
Priority options in order Decimal Bit Player 0 - 3, playfield 0 - 3, BAK (background) 1 0 Player 0 - 1, playfield 0 - 3, player 2 - 3, BAK 2 1 Playfield 0 - 3, player 0 - 3, BAK 4 2 Playfield 0 - 1, player 0 - 3, playfield 2 -3, BAK 8 3 Other options Four missiles = fifth player 16 4 Overlaps of players have 3rd color 32 5 GRAPHICS 9 (GTIA mode) 64 6 GRAPHICS 10 (GTIA mode) 128 7 GRAPHICS 11 (GTIA mode) 192 6, 7
It is quite easy to set conflicting priorities for players and playfields. In such a case, areas where both overlap when a conflict occurs will turn black. The same happens if the overlap option is not chosen.
With the color/overlap enable, you can get a multicolor player by combining players. The Atari performs a logical OR to colors of players 0/1 and 2/3 when they overlap. Only the 0/1, 2/3 combinations are allowed; you will not get a third color when players 1 and 3 overlap, for example (you will get black instead). If player one is pink and player 0 is blue, the overlap is green. If you don’t enable the overlap option, the area of overlap for all players will be black.
In GTIA mode nine, you have 16 different luminances of the same hue. In BASIC, you would use SETCOLOR 4,HUE,0. To see an example of GTIA mode nine, try:
10 GRAPHICS 9:SETCOLOR 4,9,0 20 FOR LOOP=1 TO 15:COLOR LOOP 30 FOR LINE=1 TO 2 40 FOR TEST=1 TO 25:PLOT 4+TEST,LOOP+LINE+SPACE:NEXT TEST 45 NEXT LINE 50 SPACE=SPACE+4 60 NEXT LOOP 70 GOTO 70:REM WITHOUT THIS LINE, SCREEN WILL RETURN TO GR.0
In GTIA mode ten, you have all nine color registers available; hue and luminance may be set separately for each (it would otherwise allow 16 colors, but there are only nine registers). Try this to see:
10 N=0:GRAPHICS 10 20 FOR Q=1 TO 2 30 FOR B=0 TO 8:POKE 704+B,N*16+A 35 IF A>15 THEN A=0 40 COLOR B 45 A=A+1:N=N+1 50 IF N>15 THEN N=0 60 NEXT B 65 TRAP 70:NEXT Q 70 POP :N=N+1:FOR Z=1 TO 200:NEXT Z 75 GOTO 30
GTIA mode eleven is similar to mode nine except that it allows 16 different hues, all of the same luminance. In BASIC, use SETCOLOR 4,0,luminance. Try this for a GTIA mode eleven demonstration:
10 GRAPHICS 11 20 FOR LOOP=0 TO 79:COLOR LOOP:PLOT LOOP,0:DRAWTO LOOP,191:NEXT LOOP 30 GOTO 30
You can use these examples with the routine to rotate colors, described in the text preceding location 704. GTIA mode pixels are long and skinny; they have a four to one horizontal length to height ratio. This obviously isn’t very good for drawing curves and circles!
GTIA modes are cleared on the OPEN command. How can you tell if you have the GTIA chip? Try POKE 623,64. If you have the GTIA, the screen will go all black. If not, you don’t have it. Here is a short routine, written by Craig Chamberlain and Sheldon Leemon for COMPUTE!, which allows an Atari to test itself for the presence of a CTIA or GTIA chip. The routine flashes the answer on the screen, hut can easily be modified so a program will “know” which chip is present so it can adapt itself accordingly:
10 POKE 66,1:GRAPHICS 8:POKE 709,0:POKE 710,0:POKE 66,0:POKE 623,64:POKE 53248,42:POKE 53261,3:PUT#6,1 20 POKE 53278,0:FOR K=1 TO 300:NEXT K:GRAPHICS 18:POKE 53248,0:POSITION 8,5:? #6;CHR$(71-PEEK(53252));"TIA" 30 POKE 708,PEEK(20):GOTO 30
How can you get the GTIA if you don’t have one? Ask your local Atari service representative or dealer, or write directly to Atari in Sunnyvale, California.
See the GTIA/CTIA introduction at location 53248 ($D000) for more discussion of the chip. See BYTE, May 1982, COMPUTE!, July through September 1982, and De Re Atari for more on the GTIA chip, and the GTIA Demonstration Diskette from the Atari Program Exchange (APX).
Locations 624 to 647 ($270 to $287) are used for game controllers: paddle, joystick and lightpen values.
The value of paddle 0 (paddles are also called pots, short for potentiometer); PEEK 624 returns a number between zero and 228 ($E4), increasing as the knob is turned counter-clockwise. When used to move a player or cursor (i.e., PLOT PADDLE(0),0), test your screen first. Many sets will not display locations less than 48 ($30) or greater than 208 ($D0), and in many GRAPHICS modes you will get an ERROR 141 — cursor out of range. Paddles are paired in the controller jacks, so paddle 0 and paddle 1 both use jack one. PADDL registers are shadows for POKEY locations 53760 to 53767 ($D200 to $D207).
This and the next six bytes are the same as 624, but for the other paddles.
The value of joystick 0. STICK registers are shadow locations for PIA locations 54016 and 54017 ($D300, $D301). There are nine possible decimal values (representing 45 degree increments) read by each joystick register (using the STICKn command), depending on the position of the stick:
Decimal Binary 14 1110 │ │ 10 │ 6 1010 │ 0110 \ │/ \ │/ 11── 15 ───7 1011── 1111 ──0111 / │\ / │\ 9 │ 5 1001 │ 0101 │ │ 13 1101
15 (1111) equals stick in the upright (neutral) position. See Micro, December 1981,for an article on making a proportional joystick. For an example of a machine language joystick driver you can add to your BASIC program, see COMPUTE!, July 1981. One machine language joystick reader is listed below, based on an article in COMPUTE!, August 1981:
1 GOSUB 1000 10 LOOK=STICK(0) 20 X=USR(1764,LOOK):Y=USR(1781,LOOK) 30 ON X GOTO 120,100,110 . . . 100 REM YOUR MOVE LEFT ROUTINE HERE 105 GOTO 10 110 REM YOUR MOVE RIGHT ROUTINE HERE 115 GOTO 10 120 ON Y GOTO 150, 130, 140 130 REM YOUR MOVE DOWN ROUTINE HERE 135 GOTO 10 140 REM YOUR MOVE UP ROUTINE HERE 145 GOTO 10 150 REM IF X<>1 THEN NOTHING DOING, BRANCH TO YOUR OTHER ROUTINES OR TO 155 155 GOTO 10 . . . 1000 FOR LOOP=1764 TO 1790:READ BYTE:POKE LOOP,BYTE:NEXT LOOP 1010 DATA 104,104,133,213,104,41,12,74,74,73,2,24,105,1 1020 DATA 133,212,96,104,104,133,213,104,41,3,76,237,6 1030 RETURN
See locations 88, 89 ($58, $59) for an example of a USR call using a string instead of a fixed memory location.
This and the next two locations are the same as 632, but for the other joysticks. These four locations are also used to determine if a lightpen (PEN 0 - 3) switch is pressed.
Paddle trigger 0. Used to determine if the trigger or button on paddle 0 is pressed (zero is returned) or not (one is returned). Since these are the same lines as the joystick left/right switches, you can use PTRIG for horizontal movement. PTRIG(1) - PTRIG(0) returns -1 (left), 0 (center), +1 (right). The next seven locations are for the other paddle buttons. PTRIG 0 - 3 are shadows for PIA register 54016 ($D300).
PTRIG 4-7 are shadows for PIA register 54017 ($D301).
Stick trigger 0. This and the next three locations perform the same function as the PTRIG locations except for the joysticks. Like PTBIG, zero is returned when the button is pressed; one is returned when it is not. STRIG registers are shadow registers for GTIA/CTIA locations 53264 to 53267 ($D010 to $D013).
Locations 648 to 655 ($288 to $28F) are for miscellaneous OS use.
Cassette status register.
Register to store either the read or the write mode for the cassette handler, depending on the operation: zero equals read, 128 ($80) equals write.
Cassette data record buffer size; contains the number of active data bytes in the cassette buffer for the record being read or written, at location 1021 ($3FD). Values range from zero to 128 (cassette record size is 128; $80). The pointer to the byte being read or written is at 61 ($3D). The value of BLIM is drawn from the control bytes that precede every cassette record, as explained in location 1021.
Spare bytes. It is not recommended that you use the spare bytes for your own program use. In later upgrades of the OS, these bytes may be used, causing a conflict with your program. For example, the new OS ROMs use locations 652 and 653 ($28C, $28D) in the new IRQ interrupt handler routines. It is best to use a protected area of memory such as page six, locations 1536 to 1791 ($600 to $6FF).
Locations 656 to 703 ($290 to $2BF) are used for the screen RAM display handler (depending on GRAPHICS mode).
In split-screen mode, the text window is controlled by the screen editor (E:), while the graphics region is controlled by the display handler (S:), using two separate IOCB’s. Two separate cursors are also maintained. The display handler will set AUX1 of the IOCB to split-screen option. Refer to the IOCB area, locations 832 to 959 ($340 to $3BF). See COMPUTE!, February 1982, for a program to put GR.1 and GR.2 into the text window area. The text window uses 160 bytes of RAM located just below RAMTOP (see location 106; $6A). See location 88 ($58) for a chart of screen RAM use.
Text window cursor row; value ranges from zero to three (the text window has only four lines). TXTROW specifies where the next read or write in the text window will occur
Text window cursor column; value ranges from zero to 39. Unless changed by the user, location 658 will always be zero (there are only 40 columns in the display, so the MSB will be zero). Since POSITION, PLOT, LOCATE and similar commands refer to the graphics cursor in the display area above the text window, you must use POKE statements to write to this area if PRINT statements are insufficient.
Contains the current split-screen text window GRAPHICS mode. It is the split-screen equivalent to DINDEX (location 87; $57) and is always equal to zero when location 128 ($7B) equals zero. Initialized to zero (which represents GR.0). You can alter the display list to change the text window into any GRAPHICS mode desired. If you do so, remember to change TINDEX to reflect that alteration.
Address of the upper left corner of the text window. Split-screen equivalent of locations 88, 89 ($58, $59).
These locations contain the split-screen equivalents of OLDROW (90; $5A), OLDCOL (91, 92; $5B, $5C), OLDCHR (location 93, $5D) and OLDADR (locations 94, 95; $5E, $5F). They hold the split-screen cursor data.
Temporary register, used by the display handler for the scroll loop count record.
Pixel location mask. DMASK contains zeroes tor all bits which do not correspond to the specific pixel to be operated upon, and ones for bits which do correspond, according to the GRAPHICS mode in use, as follows:
11111111 Modes 0, 1 and 2: one pixel per screen display byte. 11110000 Modes 9, 10 and 11: two pixels per byte. 00001111 11000000 Modes 3, 5 and 7: four pixels per byte. 00110000 00001100 00000011 10000000 Modes 4, 6 and 8: eight pixels per byte. 01000000
A pixel (short for picture cell or picture element) is a logical unit of video size which depends on the GRAPHICS mode in use for its dimensions. The smallest pixel is in GR.8 where it is only .5 color clock wide and one scan line high. In GR.0 it is also only .5 color clock wide, but it is eight scan lines high. Here is a chart of the pixel sizes for each mode:
Text Modes Graphics modes GR. mode 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Scan lines per pixel 8 8 16 8 4 4 2 2 1 Bits per pixel 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 Color clocks per pixel .5 1 1 4 2 2 1 1 .5 Characters per line 40 20 20 ── ── ── ── ── ── Pixels per width ── ── ── 40 80 80 160 160 320
The number of pixels per screen width is based on the normal playfield screen. See location 559 ($22F) for information on playfield size.
Temporary storage for the bit mask.
Escape flag. Normally zero, it is set to 128 ($80) if the ESC key is pressed (on detection of the ESC character; 27, $1B). It is reset to zero following the output of the next character. To display ATASCII control codes without the use of an ESC character, set location 766 ($2FE) to a non-zero value.
Map of the TAB stop positions. There are 15 byte (120 bits) here, each bit corresponding to a column in a logical line. A one in any bit means the TAB is set; to clear all TABs simply POKE every location with zero. There are 120 TAB locations because there are three physical lines to one logical line in GRAPHICS mode zero, each consisting of 40 columns. Setting the TAB locations for one logical line means they will also be set for each subsequent logical line until changed. Each physical line in one logical line can have different TAB settings, however.
To POKE TAB locations from BASIC, you must POKE in the number (i.e., set the bit) that corresponds to the location of the bit in the byte (there are five bytes in each line). For example: To set tabs at locations 5, 23, 27 and 32, first visualize the line as a string of zeros with a one at each desired tab setting:
Then break it into groups of eight bits (one byte units). There are three bytes with ones (bits set), two with all zeros:
00001000 = 8 00000000 = 0 00000010 = 2 00100001 = 33 00000000 = 0
Converting these to decimal, we get the values listed at the right of each byte. These are the numbers you’d POKE into locations 675 (the first byte) to 679 (the fifth byte on the line). On powerup or when you OPEN the display screen (S: or E:), each byte is given a value of one (i.e., 00000001) so that there are tab default tab stops at 7, 15, 23, etc., incrementing by eight to 119. Also, the leftmost screen edge is also a valid TAB stop (2, 42, and 82). In BASIC, these are set by the SET-TAB and CLR-TAB keys. TABMAP also works for the lines in the text display window in split-screen formats. TABMAP is reset to the default values on pressing RESET or changing GRAPHICS modes.
See location 201 ($C9) about changing the TAB settings used when a PRINT statement encounters a comma.
Logical line start bit map. These locations map the beginning physical line number for each logical line on the screen (initially 24, for GR.0). Each bit in the first three bytes shows the start of a logical line if the bit equals one (three bytes equals eight bits * three equals 24 lines on the screen). The map format is as follows:
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Byte ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── Line 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 690 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 691 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 692 ── ── ── ── ── ── ── ── 693
The last byte is ignored. The map bits are all set to one when the text screen is OPENed or CLEARed, when a GRAPHICS command is issued or RESET is pressed. The map is updated as logical lines are entered, edited, or deleted.
Inverse character flag; zero is normal and the initialization value (i.e., normal ATASCII video codes have BIT 7 equals zero). You POKE INVFLG with 128 ($80) to get inverse characters (BIT 7 equals one). This register is normally set by toggling the Atari logo key; however, it can be user-altered. The display handler XOR’s the ATASCII codes with the value in INVFLG at all times. See location 702 ($2BE) below.
INVFLG works to change the input, not the output. For example, if you have A$ = "HELLO", POKE 694, 128 will not change A$ when you PRINT it to the screen. However, if you POKE 694, 128 before an INPUT A$, the string will be entered as inverse.
Right fill flag for the DRAW command. If the current operation is a DRAW, then this register reads zero. If it is non-zero, the operation is a FILL.
Temporary register for row used by ROWCRS (location 84; $54).
Temporary register for column used by COLCRS (locations 85, 86; $55, $56).
Scroll flag; set if a scroll occurs. It counts the number of physical lines minus one that were deleted from the top of the screen. This moves the entire screen up one physical line for each line scrolled off the top. Since a logical line has three physical lines, SCRFLG ranges from zero to two.
Scrolling the text window is the equivalent to scrolling an entire GR.0 screen. An additional 20-line equivalent of bytes (800) is scrolled upwards in the memory below the text window address. This can play havoc with any data such as P/M graphics you have stored above RAMTOP
Temporary register used in the DRAW command only; used to save and restore the value in ATACHR (location 763; $2FB) during the FILL process.
Same as the above register.
Flag for the shift and control keys. It returns zero for lowercase letters, 64 ($40) for all uppercase (called caps lock: uppercase is required for BASIC statements and is also the default mode on powerup). SHFLOK will set characters to all caps during your program if 64 is POKEd here. Returns the value 128 ($80; control-lock) when the CTRL key is pressed. Forced control-lock will cause all keys to output their control-code functions or graphics figures. Other values POKEd here may cause the system to crash. You can use this location with 694 ($2B6) above to convert all keyboard entries to uppercase, normal display by:
10 OPEN #2,4,0,"K:" 20 GET #2,A 30 GOSUB 1000 40 PRINT CHR$(A);:GOTO 20 . . . 1000 IF A=155 THEN 1030:REM RETURN KEY 1010 IF A>=128 THEN A=A-128:REM RESTORE TO NORMAL DISPLAY 1020 IF PEEK(702)=0 AND A>96 THEN A=A-32:REM LOWERCASE TO UPPER 1030 POKE 702,64:POKE 694,0 1040 RETURN
Flag for the number of text rows available for printing. 24 ($18) is normal for text mode GR.0; four for the text window, zero for all graphics modes. In all GRAPHICS modes except zero, if there is no text window then 703 will also read zero. The large-text displays in GR.1 and GR.2 are treated as graphics displays for this purpose. The display handler specifically checks for split-screen mode by looking for the variable 24 or four here. If it finds 24 here, it assumes there is no text window; if not, it looks for the variable four.
You can add a text window to GR.0 by POKEing here with four. The top portion (20 lines) of the screen will not scroll with the bottom. To write to the top part of the screen you will have to use the PRINT#6 statement as with modes one and two. One possible application of this would be to keep a fixed menu at the top of the screen while scrolling the bottom part, as done with the DOS menu.
Locations 704 to 712 ($2C0 to $2C8) are the color registers for players, missiles, and playfields. These are the RAM shadow registers for locations 53266 to 53274 ($D012 to $D01A). For the latter, you can use the SETCOLOR command from BASIC. For all registers you can POKE the desired color into the location by using this formula:
COLOR = HUE * 16 + LUMINANCE
It is possible to get more colors in GR.8 than the one (and a half) that Atari says is possible by using a technique called artifacting. There is a small example of artifacting shown at location 710 ($2C6). See De Re Atari, Your Atari 400/800, Creative Computing, June 1981, and COMPUTE!, May 1982.
Here are the 16 colors the Atari produces, along with their POKE values for the color registers. The POKE values assume a luminance of zero. Add the luminance value to the numbers to brighten the color. The color registers ignore BIT 0; that’s why there are no “odd” values for luminance, just even values.
Color Value Color Value Black 0, 0 Medium blue 8, 128 Rust 1, 16 Dark blue 9, 144 Red-orange 2, 32 Blue-grey 10, 160 Dark orange 3, 48 Olive green 11, 176 Red 4, 64 Medium green 12, 192 Dk lavender 5, 80 Dark green 13, 208 Cobalt blue 6, 96 Orange-green 14, 224 Ultramarine 7, 112 Orange 15, 240
The bit use of the PCOLR and COLOR registers is as follows:
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 ── color ── luminance unused ................................ Grey 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Darkest Rust 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 etc. to: etc. to: Orange 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lightest
When you enable the color overlap at location 623 ($26F), ANTIC performs a logical OR on the overlap areas. For example:
01000010 Red, luminance two OR 10011010 Darkblue,luminance ten ──────── Result = 10011010 Dark green, luminance ten
Here’s a short machine language routine which will rotate the colors in registers 705 to 712:
10 DIM ROT$(30) 20 FOR LOOP=1 TO 27:READ BYTE:ROT$(LOOP,LOOP)=CHR$(BYTE):NEXT LOOP . . PUT YOUR GRAPHICS ROUTINE HERE . 100 CHANGE=USR(ADR(ROT$)) 105 FOR LOOP=1 TO 200:NEXT LOOP:GOTO 100 110 DATA 104,162,0,172,193,2,189,194,2,157 120 DATA 193,2,232,224,8,144,245,140,200,2 130 DATA 96,65,65,65,65,65,65
If you wish to rotate the colors in registers 704 to 711 instead, change lines 110 and 120 to read as follows:
110 DATA 104,162,0,172,192,2,189,193,2,157 120 DATA 192,2,232,224,8,144,245,140,199,2
If you wish to include all of the registers 704 to 712 in the routine, make the changes as above and change the eight in line 120 to nine and restore the 199 to 200 in line 120. This routine works well with the GTIA demos at location 623 ($26F).
For further detail, refer to your Atari BASIC Reference Manual, pp. 45 -56, and the GTIA Demo Disk from APX.
Color of player 0 and missile 0. Locations 704 to 707 are also called COLPM# in some sources. This is the shadow for 53266 ($D012). In GTIA mode ten, 704 holds the background color (BAK; normally held by 712). You cannot use the SETCOLOR commands to change the PCOLR registers; color values must be POKEd into them.
Color of player and missile 1. Shadow for 53267 ($D013).
Color of player and missile 2. Shadow for 53268 ($D014).
Color of player and missile 3. When the four missiles are combined to make a fifth player, it takes on the color in location 711 (COLOR3). Shadow for 53269 ($D015).
Color register zero, color of playfield zero, controlled by the BASIC SETCOLOR0 command. In GRAPHICS 1 and GRAPHICS 2, this color is used for the uppercase letters. Shadow for 53270 ($D016). You can change the values in all of the COLOR registers from BASIC by using either the SETCOLOR command or a POKE.
The next four locations are the same as location 708 for the different playfields and SETCOLOR commands. In GR.1 and GR.2, this register stores the color for lowercase letters. COLOR1 is also used to store the luminance value of the color used in GR.0 and GR.8. Shadow for 53271 ($D017).
The same as above for playfield two; in GR.1 and GR.2, this register stores the color of the inverse uppercase letters. Shadow for 53272 ($D018). Used for the background color in GR.0 and GR.8. Both use COLOR1 for the luminance value.
Despite the official limitations of color selection in GR.8, it is possible to generate additional colors by “artifacting”, turning on specific pixels (.5 color clock each) on the screen. Taking advantage of the physical structure of the TV set itself, we selectively turn on vertical lines of pixels which all show the same color. For example:
10 A=40:B=30:C=70:D=5:F=20 20 GRAPHICS 8:POKE 87,7:POKE 710,0:POKE 709,15:COLOR 1 30 PLOT A,D:DRAWTO A,C:COLOR 2:PLOT F,D:DRAWTO F,C 40 PLOT A+1,D:DRAWTO A+1,C 50 COLOR 3:PLOT B,D:DRAWTO B,C 60 GOTO 60
A little experimentation with this will show you that the colors obtained depend on which pixels are turned on and how close together the pixel columns are. There are four “colors” you can obtain, as shown before. Pixels marked one are on; marked zero means they are off. Each pair of pixels is one color clock. Three color clocks are shown together for clarity:
00:01:00 = color A 00:11:00 = color B 00:10:00 = color C 00:01:10 = color D
See BYTE, May 1982, De Re Atari, and Your Atari 400/800.
The same as the above but for playfield three. Also, the color for GR.1 and GR.2 inverse lowercase letters. Shadow for 53273 ($D019).
The same as the above but for the background (BAK) and border color. Shadow for 53274 ($D01A). In GTIA mode ten, 704 stores the background color (BAK), while 712 becomes a normal color register.
Here are the default (powerup) values for the COLOR registers (PCOL registers are all set to zero on powerup):
Register Color = Hue Luminance 708 (CO.0) 40 2 8 709 (CO.1) 202 12 10 710 (CO.2) 148 9 4 711 (CO.3) 70 4 6 712 (CO.4) 0 0 0
Locations 713 to 735 ($2C9 to $2DF) are spare bytes. Locations 736 to 767 ($2E0 to $2FF) are for miscellaneous use.
Global variables, or, four spare bytes for non DOS users. For DOS users they are used as below:
Used by DOS for the run address read from the disk sector one or from a binary file. Upon completion of any binary load, control will normally be passed back to the DOS menu. However, DOS can be forced to pass control to any specific address by storing that address here. If RUNAD is set to 40960 ($A000), then the left cartridge (BASIC if inserted) will be called when the program is booted.
With DOS 1.0, if you POKE the address of your binary load file here, the file will be automatically run upon using the DOS Binary Load (selection L). Using DOS 1.0’s append (/A) option when saving a binary file to disk, you can cause the load address POKEd here to be saved with the data. In DOS 2.0, you may specify the initialization and the run address with the program name when you save it to disk (i.e., GAME.OBJ,2000,4FFF,4F00,4000). DOS 2.0 uses the /A option to merge files. In order to prevent your binary files from running automatically upon loading in DOS 2.0, use the /N appendage to the file name when loading the file.
For users of CompuServe, there is an excellent little BASIC program (with machine language subroutines) to create autoboot files, chain machine language files with BASIC and to add an 850 autoboot file in the Popular Electronics Magazine (PEM) access area. It is available free for downloading.
Initialization address read from the disk. An autoboot file must load an address value into either RUNAD above or INITAD. The code pointed to by INITAD will be run as soon as that location is loaded. The code pointed to by RUNAD will be executed only after the entire load process has been completed. To return control to DOS after the execution of your program, end your code with an RTS instruction.
RAM size, high byte only; this is the number of pages that the top of RAM represents (one page equals 256 bytes). Since there can never be less than a whole page, it becomes practical to measure RAM in those page units. This is the same value as in RAMTOP, location 106 ($6A), passed here from TRAMSZ, location 6. Space saved by moving RAMSIZ or RAMTOP has the advantage of being above the display area. Initialized to 160 for a 48K Atari.
Pointer to the top of free memory used by both BASIC (which calls it HIMEM) and the OS, passed here from TRAMSZ, location 6 after powerup. This address is the highest free location in RAM for programs and data. The value is updated on powerup, when RESET is pressed, when you change GRAPHICS mode, or when a channel (IOCB) is OPENed to the display. The display list starts at the next byte above MEMTOP.
The screen handler will only OPEN the S: device if no RAM is needed below this value (i.e. there is enough free RAM below here to accommodate the requested GRAPHICS mode change). Memory above this address is used for the display list and the screen display RAM. Also, if a screen mode change would extend the screen mode memory below APPMHI (locations 14, 15; $E, $F), then the screen is set back for GR.0, MEMTOP is updated, and an error is returned to the user. Otherwise the mode change will take place and MEMTOP will be updated.
Space saved by moving MEMTOP is below the display list. Be careful not to overwrite it if you change GRAPHICS modes in mid-program. When using memory below MEMTOP for storage, make sure to set APPMHI above your data to avoid having the screen data descend into it and destroy it.
Pointer to the bottom of free memory, initialized to 1792 ($700) and updated by the presence of DOS or any other low-memory application program. It is used by the OS; the BASIC pointer to the bottom of free memory is at locations 128, 129 ($80, $81). The value in MEMLO is never altered by the OS after powerup.
This is the address of the first free location in RAM available for program use. Set after all FMS buffers have been allocated (see locations 1801 and 1802; $709 and $70A). The address of the last sector buffer is incremented by 128 (the buffer size in bytes) and the value placed in MEMLO. The value updates on powerup or when RESET is pressed. This value is passed back to locations 128, 129 ($80, $81) on the execution of the BASIC NEW command, but not RUN, LOAD or RESET.
If you are reserving space for your own device driver(s) or reserving buffer space, you load your routine into the address specified by MEMLO, add the size of your routine to the MEMLO value, and POKE the new value plus one back into MEMLO.
When you don’t have DOS or any other application program using low-memory resident, MEMLO points to 1792 ($700. With DOS 2.0 present, MEMLO points to 7420 ($1CFC). If you change the buffer defaults mentioned earlier, you will raise or lower this latter value by 128 ($80) bytes for every buffer added or deleted, respectively. When you boot up the 850 Interface with or without disk, you add another 1728 ($6C0) bytes to the value in MEMLO.
You can alter MEMLO to protect an area of memory below your program. This is an alternative to protecting an area above RAMTOP (location 106; $6A) and avoids the problem of the CLEAR SCREEN routine destroying data. However, unless you have created a MEM.SAV file, the data will be wiped out when you call DOS. To alter MEMLO, you start by POKEing WARMST (location 8) with zero, then doing a JMP to the BASIC cartridge entry point at 40960 ($A000) after defining your area to protect. For example, try this:
10 DIM MEM$(24):PROTECT=700:REM NUMBER OF BYTES TO CHANGE 15 HIBYTE=INT(PROTECT/256):LOBYTE=PROTECT-256*HIBYTE 20 FOR N=1 TO 24:READ PRG:MEM$(N)=CHR$(PRG):NEXT N 30 MEM$(6,6)=CHR$(LOBYTE):MEM$(14,14)=CHR$(HIBYTE) 40 RESERVE=USR(ADR(MEM$)) 50 DATA 24,173,231,2,105,0,141,231,2,173,232,2,105 60 DATA 0,141,232,2,169,0,133,8,76,0,160
You will find the address of your reserved memory by: PRINT PEEK(743) + PEEK(744) * 256 before you run the program. This program will wipe itself out when run. Altering MEMLO is the method used by both DOS and the RS-232 port driver in the 850 Interface. See COMPUTE!, July 1981.
Four device status registers used by the I/O status operation as follows:
746 ($2EA) is the device error status and the command status byte. If the operation is a disk I/O, then the status returned is that of the 1771 controller chip in your Atari disk drive. Bits set to one return the following error codes:
Bit Decimal Error 0 1 An invalid command frame was received (error). 1 2 An invalid data frame was received. 2 4 An output operation was unsuccessful. 3 8 The disk is write-protected. 4 16 The system is inactive (on standby). 7 32 The peripheral controller is “intelligent” (has its own microprocessor: the disk drive). All Atari devices are intelligent except the cassette recorder, so BIT 7 will normally be one when a device is attached.
747 ($2EB) is the device status byte. For the disk, it holds the value of the status register of the drive controller. For the 850 Interface, it holds the status for DSR,CTS,CRX and RCV when concurrent I/O is not active (see the 850 Interface Manual). It also contains the AUX2 byte value from the previous operation (see the IOCB description at 832 to 959; $340 to $3AF).
748 ($2EC) is the maximum device time-out value in seconds. A value of 60 here represents 64 seconds. This value is passed back to location 582 ($246) after every disk status request. Initialized to 31.
749 ($2ED) is used for number of bytes in output buffer. See 850 Manual, p. 43.
When concurrent I/O is active, the STATUS command returns the number of characters in the input buffer to locations 747 and 748, and the number of characters in the output buffer to location 749.
Cassette baud rate low and high bytes. Initialized to 1484 ($5CC), which represents a nominal 600 baud (bits per second). After baud rate calculations, these locations will contain POKEY values for the corrected baud rate. The baud rate is adjusted by SIO to account for motor variations, tape stretch, etc. The beginning of every cassette record contains a pattern of alternating off/on bits (zero/one) which are used solely for speed (baud) correction.
Cursor inhibit flag. Zero turns the cursor on; any other number turns the cursor off. A visible cursor is an inverse blank (space) character. Note that cursor visibility does not change until the next time the cursor moves (if changed during a program). If you wish to change the cursor status without altering the screen data, follow your CRSINH change with a cursor movement (i.e., up, down) sequence. This register is set to zero (cursor restored) on powerup, RESET, BREAK, or an OPEN command to either the display handler (S:) or screen editor (E:). See location 755 for another means to turn off the cursor.
Key delay flag or key debounce counter; used to see if any key has been pressed. If a zero is returned, then no key has been pressed. If three is returned, then any key. It is decremented every stage two VBLANK (1/60 or 1/30th second) until it reaches zero. If any key is pressed while KEYDEL is greater than zero, it is ignored as “bounce.” See COMPUTE!, December 1981, for a routine to change the keyboard delay to suit your own typing needs.
Prior keyboard character code (most recently read and accepted). This is the previous value passed from 764 ($2FC). If the value of the new key code equals the value in CH1, then the code is accepted only if a suitable key debounce delay has taken place since the prior value was accepted.
Character Mode Register. Zero means normal inverse characters, one is blank inverse characters (inverse characters will be printed as blanks, i.e., invisible), two is normal characters, three is solid inverse characters. Four to seven is the same as zero to three, but prints the display upside down. This register also controls the transparency of the cursor. It is transparent with values two and six, opaque with values three and seven. The cursor is absent with values zero, one, four and five.
Toggling BIT 0 on and off can be a handy way to produce a blinking effect for printed inverse characters (characters with ATASCII values greater than 128 — those that have BIT 7 set). Shadow for 54273 ($D401). There is no visible cursor for the graphics mode output. CHACT is initialized to two. Here’s an example of blinking text using this register:
10 CHACT=755:REM USE INVERSE FOR WORDS BELOW 15 PRINT "THIS IS A TEST OF BLINKING TEXT" 20 POKE CHACT,INT(RND(0)*4) 30 FOR N=1 TO 100:NEXT N:GOTO 15
See COMPUTE!, December 1981. Using a machine language routine and page six space, try:
10 PAGE=1536:EXIT=1568 20 FOR N=PAGE TO EXIT:READ BYTE:POKE N,BYTE:NEXT N 30 PGM=USR(PAGE) 40 PRINT "THIS IS A TEST OF BLINKING TEXT":REM MAKE SOME WORDS INVERSE 50 GOTO 50 60 DATA 104,169,17,141,40,2,169,6,141,41 70 DATA 2,169,30,141,26,2,98,173,243,2 80 DATA 41,1,73,1,141,243,2,169,30,141,26,2,96
The blink frequency is set .5 second; to change it, change the 30 in line 80 to any number from one (1/30 second) to 255 (eight .5 seconds). For another way to make the cursor visible or invisible, see locations 752 above.
Character Base Register, shadow for 54281 ($D409). The default (initialization value) is 224 ($E0) for uppercase characters and numbers; POKE CHBAS with 226 ($E2) to get the lowercase and the graphics characters in GR.1 and GR.2. In GR.0 you get the entire set displayed to the screen, but in GR.1 and GR.2, you must POKE 756 for the appropriate half-set to be displayed.
How do you create an altered character set? First you must reserve an area in memory for your set (512 or 1024 bytes; look at location 106; $6A to see how). Then either you move the ROM set (or half set, if that’s all you intend to change) into that area and alter the selected characters, or you fill up the space with bytes which make up your own set. Then you POKE 756 with the MSB of the location of your set so the computer knows where to find it.
What does an altered character set look like? Each character is a block one byte wide by eight bytes high. You set the bits for the points on the screen you wish to be “on” when displayed. Here are two examples:
one byte wide: ┌──────────┐ 00100000 = 32 │ # │ 00010000 = 16 │ # │ 00010000 = 16 │ # │ 00010000 = 16 │ # │ 00011110 = 30 │ #### │ 00000010 = 2 │ # │ 00001100 = 12 │ ## │ 00010000 = 16 │ # │ └──────────┘ Hebrew letter Lamed
one byte wide: ┌──────────┐ 10000001 = 129 │ # # │ 10011001 = 153 │ # ## # │ 10111101 = 189 │ # #### # │ 11111111 = 255 │ ######## │ 11111111 = 255 │ ######## │ 10111101 = 189 │ # #### # │ 10011001 = 153 │ # ## # │ 10000001 = 129 │ # # │ └──────────┘ Tie-fighter
You can turn these characters into DATA statements to be POKEd into your reserved area by using the values for the bytes as in the above examples. To change the ROM set once it is moved, you look at the internal code (see the BASIC Reference Manual, p. 55) and find the value of the letter you want to replace — such as the letter A — code 33. Multiply this by eight bytes for each code number from the start of the set (33 * eight equals 264). You then replace the eight bytes used by the letter A, using a FOR-NEXT loop with the values for your own character. For example, add these lines to the machine language found a few pages further on:
1000 FOR LOOP=1 TO 4:READ CHAR:SET=CHACT+CHAR*8 1010 FOR TIME=0 TO 7:READ BYTE:POKE SET+TIME,BYTE:NEXT TIME 1020 NEXT LOOP 1030 DATA 33,0,120,124,22,22,124,120,0 1040 DATA 34,0,126,82,82,82,108,0,0 1050 DATA 35,56,84,254,238,254,68,56,0 1060 DATA 36,100,84,76,0,48,72,72,48 2000 END
RUN it and type the letters A to D.
Why 224 and 226? Translated to hex, these values are $E0 and $E2, respectively. These are the high bytes (MSB) for the location of the character set stored in ROM: $E000 (57344) is the address for the start of the set (which begins with punctuation, numbers and uppercase letters), and $E200 (57856), for the second half of the ROM set, lowercase and graphic control characters (both start on page boundaries). The ROM set uses the internal order given on page 55 of your BASIC Reference Manual, not the ATASCII order. See also location 57344 ($E000).
You will notice that using the PRINT#6 command will show you that your characters have more than one color available to them in GR.1 and GR.2. Try PRINTing lowercase or inverse characters when you are using the uppercase set. This effect can be very useful in creating colorful text pages. Uppercase letters, numbers, and special characters use color register zero (location 708; $2C4 - orange) for normal display, and color register two (710; $2C6 - blue) for inverse display. Lowercase letters use register one (709; $2C5 - aqua) for normal display and register three (711; $2C7 - pink) for inverse. See COMPUTE!, December 1981, page 98, for a discussion of using the CTRL keys with letter keys to get different color effects.
One problem with POKEing 756 with 226 is that there is no blank space character in the second set: you get a screen full of hearts. You have two choices: you can change the color of register zero to the same as the background and lose those characters which use register zero — the control characters — but get your blanks (and you still have registers one, two and three left). Or you can redefine your own set with a blank character in it. The latter is obviously more work. See “Ask The Readers,” COMPUTE!, July 1982.
It is seldom mentioned in the manuals, but you cannot set 756 to 225 ($E1) or any other odd number. Doing so will only give you screen garbage. The page number 756 points to must be evenly divisible by two.
When you create your own character set and store it in memory, you need to reserve at least 1K for a full character set (1024 bytes —$400 or four pages), and you must begin on a page boundary. In hex these are the numbers ending with $XX00 such as $C000 or $600 because you store the pointer to your set here in 756; it can only hold the MSB of the address and assumes that the LSB is always zero — or rather a page boundary. You can reserve memory by:
POKE 106,PEEK(106)-4 (or any multiple of four)
And do a GRAPHICS command immediately after to have your new memory value accepted by the computer. If you are using only one half of the entire set, for GR.1 or GR.2, you need only reserve 512 bytes, and it may begin on a .5K boundary (like $E200; these are hexadecimal memory locations that end in $X200). If you plan to switch to different character sets, you will need to reserve the full 1K or more, according to the number of different character sets you need to display. RAM for half-K sets can be reserved by:
POKE 106,PEEK(106)-2 (or a multiple of two)
The location for your set will then begin at PEEK(106)*256. Because BASIC cannot always handle setting up a display list for GR.7 and GR.8 when you modify location 106 by less than 4K (16 pages), you may find you must use PEEK(106)-16. See location 88,89 ($58,$59) and 54279 ($D407) for information regarding screen use and reserving memory.
Make sure you don’t have your character set overlap with your player/missile graphics. Be very careful when using altered character sets in high memory. Changing GRAPHICS modes, a CLEAR command, or scrolling the text window all clear memory past the screen display. When you scroll the text window, you don’t simply scroll the four lines; you actually scroll a full 24 (20 additional lines * 40 bytes equals 800 bytes scrolled past memory)! This messes up the memory past the window display address, so position your character sets below all possible interference (or don’t scroll or clear the screen).
You can create and store as many character sets as your memory will allow. You switch back and forth between them and the ROM set by simply POKEing the MSB of the address into 756. Of course, you can display only one set at a time unless you use an altered display list and DLI to call up other sets. There are no restrictions outside of memory requirements on using altered character sets with P/M graphics as long as the areas reserved for them do not overlap.
A GRAPHICS command such as GR.0, RESET or a DOS call restores the character set pointer to the ROM location, so you must always POKE it again with the correct location of your new set after any such command. A useful place to store these sets is one page after the end of RAM, assuming you’ve gone back to location 106 ($6A) and subtracted the correct number of pages from the value it holds (by POKE 106,PEEK(106) minus the number of pages to be reserved; see above). Then you can reset the character set location by simply using POKE 756,PEEK(106)+1 (the plus one simply makes sure you start at the first byte of your set).
A full character set requires 1024 bytes (1K: four pages) be reserved for it. Why? Because there are 128 characters, each represented by eight bytes, so 128 * eight equals 1024. If you are using a graphics mode that uses only half the character set, you need only reserve 512 bytes (64 * eight equals 512). Remember to begin either one on a page boundary (1K boundary for full sets or .5K for half sets). By switching back and forth between two character sets, you could create the illusion of animation.
Many magazines have published good utilities to aid in the design of altered character sets, such as the January 1982 Creative Computing, and SuperFont in COMPUTE!, January 1982. I suggest that you examine The Next Step from Online, Instedit from APX, or FontEdit from the Code Works for very useful set generators. One potentially useful way to alter just a few of the characters is to duplicate the block of memory which holds the ROM set by moving it byte by byte into RAM. A BASIC FOR-NEXT loop can accomplish this, although it’s very slow. For example:
5 CH=57344 10 START=PEEK(106)-4:PLACE=START*256:POKE 106,PEEK(106)-5:GRAPHICS 0:REM RESERVE EXTRA IN CASE OF SCREEN CLEAR 20 FOR LOOP=0 TO 1023:POKE PLACE+LOOP,PEEK(CH+LOOP):NEXT LOOP:REM MOVE THE ROM SET 30 POKE 756,PLACE/256:REM TELL ANTIC WHERE CHSET IS
Here’s a machine language routine to move the set:
10 DIM BYTE$(80) 15 REM MEM-1 TO PROTECT SET FROM CLEAR SCREEN DESTRUCTION (SEE LOC.88) 20 MEM=PEEK(106)-4:POKE 106,MEM-1:CHACT=MEM*256:GRAPHICS 0 30 FOR LOOP=1 TO 32:READ PGM:BYTE$(LOOP,LOOP)=CHR$(PGM):NEXT LOOP 40 DATA 104,104,133,213,104,133,212 50 DATA 104,133,215,104,133,214,162 60 DATA 4,160,0,177,212,145,214 70 DATA 200,208,249,230,213,230,215 80 DATA 202,208,240,96 90 Z=USR(ADR(BYTE$),224*256,CHACT) . . ADD YOUR OWN ALTERATION PROGRAM OR THE EARLIER EXAMPLE HERE . . 1500 POKE MEM-1,0:POKE 756,MEM
If you have Microsoft BASIC or BASIC A+, you can do this very easily with the MOVE command!
Remember, when altering the ROM set, that the characters aren’t in ATASCII order; rather they are in their own internal order. Your own set will have to follow this order if you wish to have the characters correlate to the keyboard and the ATASCII values. See page 55 of your BASIC Reference Manual for a listing of the internal order. Creative Computing, January 1982, had a good article on character sets, as well as a useful method of transferring the ROM set to RAM using string manipulation. See also “Using Text Plot for Animated Games” in COMPUTE!, April 1982, for an example of using character sets for animated graphics.
Internal code value for the most recent character read or written (internal code for the value in ATACHR below). This register is difficult to use with PEEK statements since it returns the most recent character; most often the cursor value (128, $80 for a visible, zero for an invisible cursor).
Returns the last ATASCII character read or written or the value of a graphics point. ATACHR is used in converting the ATASCII code to the internal character code passed to or from CIO. It also returns the value of the graphics point. The FILL and DRAW commands use this location for the color of the line drawn, ATACHR being temporarily loaded with the value in FILDAT, location 765; $2FD. To force a color change in the line, POKE the desired color number here (color * sixteen + luminance). To see this register in use as character storage, try:
10 OPEN#2,4,0,"K:" 20 GET#2,A 30 PRINT PEEK(763);" "; CHR$(A) 40 GOTO 20
Make sure the PEEK statement comes before the PRINT CHR$ statement, or you will not get the proper value returned. When the RETURN key is the last key pressed, ATACHR will show a value of 155.
Internal hardware value for the last key pressed. POKE CH with 255 ($FF; no key pressed) to clear it. The keyboard handler gets all of its key data from CH. It stores the value 255 here to indicate the key code has been accepted, then passes the code to CH1, location 754 ($2F2). If the value in CH is the same as in CH1, a key code will be accepted only if the proper key debounce delay time has transpired. If the code is the CTRL-1 combination (the CTRL and the “1” keys pressed simultaneously), then the start/stop flag at 767 ($2FF) is complemented, but the value is not stored in CH. The auto repeat logic will also store store key information here as a result of the continuous pressing of a key. This is neither the ATASCII nor the internal code value; it is the “raw” keyboard matrix code for the key pressed. The table for translation of this code to ATASCII is on page 50 of the OS User’s Manual. In a two-key operation, BIT 7 is set if the CTRL key is pressed, BIT 6 if the SHIFT key is pressed. The rest of the bytes are the code (ignored if both BITs 7 and 6 are set). Only the code for the last key pressed is stored here (it is a global variable for keyboard).
When a read request is issued to the keyboard, CH is set to 255 by the handler routine. After a keycode has been read from this register, it is reset to 255. BREAK doesn’t show here, and CTRL and SHIFT will not show here on their own. However, the inverse toggle (Atari logo key), CAPS/LOWR, TAB and the ESC keys will show by themselves. You can examine this register with:
10 LOOK=PEEK(764) 20 PRINT "KEY PRESSED = ";LOOK 30 POKE 764,255 40 FOR LOOP=1 TO 250:NEXT LOOP 50 GOTO 10
See COMPUTE!’s First Book of Atari for an example of using this register as a replacement for joystick input.
Color data for the fill region in the XIO FILL command.
Display flag, used in displaying the control codes not associated with an ESC character (see location 674; $2A2). If zero is returned or POKEd here, then the ATASCII codes 27 - 31, 123 - 127, 187 - 191 and 251 - 255 perform their normal display screen control functions (i.e., clear screen, cursor movement, delete/insert line, etc.). If any other number is returned, then a control character is displayed (as in pressing the ESC key with CTRL-CLEAR for a graphic representation of a screen clear). POKEing any positive number here will force the display instead of the control code action. There is, however, a small bug, not associated with location 766, in Atari BASIC: a PRINTed CTRL-R or CTRL-U are both treated as a semicolon.
Start/stop display screen flag, used to stop the scrolling of the screen during a DRAW or graphics routine, a LISTing or a PRINTing. When the value is zero, the screen output is not stopped. When the value is 255 ($FF; the one’s complement), the output to the screen is stopped, and the machine waits for the value to become zero again before continuing with the scrolling display. Normally SSFLAG is toggled by the user during these operations by pressing the CTRL-1 keys combination to both start and stop the scroll. Set to zero by RESET and powerup.
Locations 768 to 831 ($300 to $33F) are used for the device handler and vectors to the handler routines (devices S:, P:, E:, D:, C:, R: and K:). A device handler is a routine used by the OS to control the transfer of data in that particular device for the task allotted (such as read, write, save, etc.). The resident D: handler does not conform entirely with the other handler — SIO calling routines. Instead, you use the DCB to communicate directly with the disk handler. The device handler for R: is loaded in from the 850 interface module. See De Re Atari, the 850 Interface Manual, and the OS Listings pages 64 - 65.
Locations 768 to 779 ($300 to $30B) are the resident Device Control Block (DCB) addresses, used for I/O operations that require the serial bus; also used as the disk DCB. DUP.SYS uses this block to interface the FMS with the disk handler. The Atari disk drive uses a serial access at 19,200 baud (about 20 times slower than the Apple!). It has its own microprocessor, a 6507, plus 128 bytes of RAM, a 2316 2K masked ROM chip (like a 2716), a 2332 RAM-I/O timer chip with another 128 bytes of RAM (like the PIA chip) and a WD 1771 FD controller chip. See the “Outpost Atari” column, Creative Computing, May 1982, for an example of using the disk DCB.
All of the parameters passed to SIO are contained in the DCB. SIO uses the DCB information and returns the status in the DCB for subsequent use by the device handler.
Device serial bus ID (serial device type) set up by the handler, not user-alterable. Values are:
Disk drives D1 - D4 49-52 ($31-$34) Printer P1 64 ($40) Printer P2 79 ($4F) RS232 ports R1-R4 80-83 ($50-$53)
Disk or device unit number: one to four, set up by the user.
The number of the disk or device operation (command) to be performed, set by the user or by the device handler prior to calling SIO. Serial bus commands are:
Read 82 ($52) Write (verify) 87 ($57) Status 83 ($53) Put (no verify) 80 (0) Format 33 ($21) Download 32 ($20) Read address 84 ($54) Read spin 81 ($51) Motor on 85 ($55) Verify sector 86 ($56)
All of the above are disk device commands, except write and status, which are also printer commands (with no verify).
The status code upon return to user. Also used to set the data direction; whether the device is to send or receive a data frame. This byte is used by the device handler to indicate to SIO what to do after the command frame is sent and acknowledged. Prior to the SIO call, the handler examines BIT 6 (one equals receive data) and BIT 7 (one equals send data). If both bits are zero, then no data transfer is associated with the operation. Both bits set to one is invalid. SIO uses it to indicate to the handler the status of the requested operation after the SIO call.
Data buffer address of the source or destination of the data to be transferred or the device status information (or the disk sector data). Set by the user, it need not be set if there is no data transferred, as in a status request.
The time-out value for the handler in one-second units, supplied by the handler for use by SIO. The cassette time-out value is 35, just over 37 seconds. The timer values are 64 seconds per 60 units of measurement. Initialized to 31.
The number of bytes transferred to or from the data buffer (or the disk) as a result of the most recent operation, set by the handler. Also used for the count of bad sector data. There is a small bug in SIO which causes incorrect system actions when the last byte in a buffer is in a memory location ending with $FF, such as $A0FF.
Used for device specific information such as the disk sector number for the read or write operation. Loaded down to locations 572, 573 ($23C, $23D) by SIO.
There are only five commands supported by the disk handler: GET sector (82; $52), PUT sector (80; $50), PUT sector with VERIFY (87; $57), STATUS request (83; $53) and FORMAT entire disk (33; $21). There is no command to FORMAT a portion of the disk; this is done by the INS 1771-1 formatter/controller chip in the drive itself and isn’t user-accessible. There is a new disk drive ROM to replace the current “C” version. It is the “E” ROM. Not only is it faster than the older ROMs, but it also allows for selective formatting of disk sectors. Atari has not announced yet whether this new 810 ROM will be made available. For more information, see the OS User’s Manual.
Locations 780 to 793 ($30C to $319) are for miscellaneous use. Locations 794 to 831 ($31A to $33F) are handler address tables. To use these DCBs, the user must provide the required parameters to this block and then do a machine language JSR to $E453 (58451) for disk I/O or $E459 (58457; the SIO entry point) for other devices.
Initial baud rate timer value.
Addition correction flag for the baud rate calculations involving the timer registers.
Cassette mode when set. Used by SIO to control the program flow through shared code. When set to zero, the current operation is a standard SIO operation; when non-zero, it is a cassette operation.
Final timer value. Timer one and timer two contain reference times for the start and end of the fixed bit pattern receive period. The first byte of each timer contains the VCOUNT value (54283; $D40B), and the second byte contains the current realtime clock value from location 20 ($14). The difference between the timer values is used in a lookup table to compute the interval for the new values for the baud rate passed on to location 750, 751 ($2EE, $2EF).
Two-byte temporary storage register used by SIO for the VCOUNT calculation during baud timer routines. See location 54283 ($D40B).
Temporary storage register.
Save serial data-in port used to detect, and updated after, each bit arrival. Used to retain the state of BIT 4 of location 53775 ($D20F; serial data-in register).
Time-out flag for baud rate correction, used to define an unsuccessful baud rate value. Initially set to one, it is decremented during the I/O operation. If it reaches zero (after two seconds) before the first byte of the cassette record is read, the operation will be aborted.
SIO stack pointer register. Points to a byte in the stack being used in the current operation (locations 256 to 511; $100 to $1FF).
Temporary status holder for location 48 ($30).
Handler Address Table. Thirty-eight bytes are reserved for up to 12 entries of three bytes per handler, the last two bytes being set to zero. On powerup, the HATABS table is copied from ROM. Devices to be booted, such as the disk drive, add their handler information to the end of the table. Each entry has the character device name (C,D,E,K,P,S,R) in ATASCII code and the handler address (LSB/MSB). Unused bytes are all set to zero. FMS searches HATABS from the top for a device “D:” entry, and when it doesn’t find it, it then sets the device vector at the end of the table to point to the FMS vector at 1995 ($7CB). CIO searches for a handler character from the bottom up. This allows new handlers to take precedence over the old. Pressing RESET clears HATABS of all but the resident handler entries!
794 31A Printer device ID (P:), initialized to 58416 ($E430). 797 31D Cassette device ID (C:), initialized to 58432 ($E440). 800 320 Display editor ID (E:), initialized to 58368 ($E400). 803 323 Screen handler ID (S:), initialized to 58384 ($E410). 806 326 Keyboard handler ID (K:), initialized to 58400 ($E420).
HATABS unused entry points: 809 ($329), 812 ($32C), 815 ($32F), 818 ($332), 821 ($335), 824 ($338), 827 ($33B), and 830 ($33E). These are numbered sequentially from one to eight. There are only two bytes in the last entry (unused), both of which are set to zero. When DOS is present, it adds an entry to the table with the ATASCII code for the letter “D” and a vector to address 1995 ($7CB).
The format for the HATABS table is:
The device handler address table entry above for the specific handler points to the first byte (low byte/high byte) of the vector table which starts at 58368 ($E400). Each handler is designed with the following format:
CIO uses the ZIOCB (see location 32; $20) to pass parameters to the originating IOCB, the A, Y and X registers and CIO. It is possible to add your own device driver(s) to OS by following these rules:
See the “Insight: Atari” columns in COMPUTE!, January and April 1982, for details. The APX program “T: A Text Display Device” is a good example of a device handler application. See De Re Atari for more information on the DCB and HATABS, including the use of a null handler.
Locations 832 to 959 ($340 to $3BF) are reserved for the eight IOCB’s (input/output control blocks). IOCB’s are channels for the transfer of information (data bytes) into and out of the Atari, or between devices. You use them to tell the computer what operation to perform, how much data to move and, if necessary, where the data to be moved is located. Each block has 16 bytes reserved for it.
What is an IOCB? Every time you PRINT something on the screen or the printer, every time you LOAD or SAVE a file, every time you OPEN a channel, you are using an IOCB. In some cases, operations have automatic OPEN and CLOSE functions built in — like LPRINT. In others, you must tell the Atari to do each step as you need it. Some IOCB’s are dedicated to specific use, such as zero for the screen display. Others can be used for any I/O function you wish. The information you place after the OPEN command tells CIO how you want the data transferred to or from the device. It is SIO and the device handlers that do the actual transfer of data.
You can easily POKE the necessary values into the memory locations and use a machine language subroutine through a USR function to call the CIO directly (you must still use an OPEN and CLOSE statement for the channel, however). This is useful because BASIC only supports either record or single byte data transfer, while the CIO will handle complete buffer I/O. See the CIO entry address, location 58454 ($E456), for more details. These blocks are used the same way as the page zero IOCB (locations 32 to 47; $20 to $2F). The OS takes the information here, moves it to the ZIOCB for use by the ROM CIO, then returns the updated information back to the user area when the operation is done.
Note that when BASIC encounters a DOS command, it CLOSEs all channels except zero. Refer to the Atari Hardware Manual and the 850 Interface Manual for more detailed use of these locations.
I/O Control Block (IOCB) zero. Normally used for the screen editor (E:). You can POKE 838,166 and POKE 839,238 and send everything to the printer instead of to the screen (POKE 838,163, and POKE 839,246 to send everything back to the screen again). You could use this in a program to toggle back and forth between screen and printed copy when prompted by user input. This will save you multiple PRINT and LPRINT coding.
You can use these locations to transfer data to other devices as well since they point to the address of the device’s “put one byte” routine. See the OS Manual for more information. Location 842 can be given the value 13 for read from screen and 12 for write to screen. POKE 842,13 puts the Atari into “RETURN key mode” by setting the auxiliary byte one (ICAX1) to screen input and output. POKEing 842 with 12 returns it to keyboard input and screen output mode. The former mode allows for dynamic use of the screen to act upon commands the cursor is made to move across.
You can use this “forced read” mode to read data on the screen into BASIC without user intervention. For example, in the program below, lines 100 through 200 will be deleted by the program itself as it runs.
10 GRAPHICS 0:POSITION 2,4 20 PRINT 100:PRINT 150:PRINT 200 25 PRINT "CONT" 30 POSITION 2,0 50 POKE 842,13:STOP 60 POKE 842,12 70 REM THE NEXT LINES WILL BE DELETED 100 PRINT "DELETING..." 150 PRINT "DELETING..." 200 PRINT "DELETED!"
See COMPUTE!, August 1981, for a sample of this powerful technique. See Santa Cruz’s Tricky Tutorial #1 (display lists) for another application. The last four bytes (844 to 847; $34C to $34F in this case) are spare (auxiliary) bytes in all IOCB’s.
When you are in a GRAPHICS mode other than zero, channel zero is OPENed for the text window area. If the window is absent and you OPEN channel zero, the whole screen returns to mode zero. A BASIC NEW or RUN command closes all channels except zero. OPENing a channel to S: or E: always clears the display screen.
See COMPUTE!, October 1981,for an example of using an IOCB with the cassette program recorder, and September 1981 for another use with the Atari 825 printer.
IOCB six. The GRAPHICS statement OPENs channel six for screen display (S:), so once you are out of mode zero, you cannot use channel six unless you first issue a CLOSE#6 statement. If you CLOSE this channel, you will not be able to use the DRAWTO, PLOT or LOCATE commands until you reOPEN the channel. The LOAD command closes channel six; it also closes all channels except zero.
IOCB seven. LPRINT automatically uses channel seven for its use. If the channel is OPEN for some other use and an LPRINT is done, an error will occur, the channel will be CLOSEd, and subsequent LPRINTs will work. The LIST command also uses channel seven, even if channel seven is already OPEN. However, when the LIST is done, it CLOSEs channel seven. The LOAD command uses channel seven to transfer programs to and from the recorder or disk. LIST (except to the display screen), LOAD and LPRINT also close all sound voices. The RUN from tape or disk and SAVE commands use channel seven, as does LIST.
The bytes within each IOCB are used as follows:
Label Offset Bytes Description ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── ICHID 0 1 Index into the device name table for the currently OPEN file. Set by the OS. If not in use, the value is 255 ($FF), which is also the initialization value. ICDNO 1 1 Device number such as one for D1: or two for D2:. Set by the OS. ICCOM 2 1 Command for the type of action to be taken by the device, set by the user. This is the first variable after the channel number in an OPEN command. See below for a command summary. Also called ICCMD. ICSTA 3 1 The most recent status returned by the device, set by the OS. May or may not be the same value as that which is returned by the STATUS request in BASIC. See the OS User’s Manual, pp. 165-166, for a list of status byte values. ICBAL/H 4,5 2 Two-byte (LSB,MSB) buffer address for data transfer or the address of the file name for OPEN, STATUS, etc. ICPTL/H 6,7 2 Address of the device’s put-one-byte routine minus one. Set by the OS at OPEN command, but not actually used by the OS (it is used by BASIC, however). Points to CIO’s “IOCB NOT OPEN” message at powerup. ICBLL/H 8,9 2 Buffer length set to the maximum number of bytes to transfer in PUT and GET operations. Decremented by one for each byte transferred; updated after each READ or WRITE operation. Records the number of bytes actually transferred in and out of the buffer after each operation. ICAX1 10 1 Auxiliary byte number one, referred to as AUX1. Used in the OPEN statement to specify the type of file access: four for READ, eight for WRITE, twelve for both (UPDATE). Not all devices can use both kinds of operations. This byte can be used in user-written drivers for other purposes and can be altered in certain cases once the IOCB has been OPENed (see the program example above). For the S: device, if AUX1 equals 32, it means inhibit the screen clear function when changing GRAPHICS modes. Bit use is as follows for most applications: Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Use ....unused.... W R D A W equals write, R equals read, D equals directory, A equals append. ICAX2 11 1 Auxiliary byte two, referred to as AUX2. Special use by each device driver; some serial port functions may use this byte. Auxiliary bytes two to five have no fixed use; they are used to contain device-dependent and/or user-established data. ICAX3/4 12,13 2 Auxiliary bytes three and four; used to maintain a record of the disk sector number for the BASIC NOTE and POINT commands. ICAX5 14 1 Auxiliary byte five. Used by NOTE and POINT to maintain a record of the byte within a sector. It stores the relative displacement in sector from zero to 124 ($7C). Bytes 125 and 126 of a sector are used for sector-link values, and byte 127 ($7F) is used as a count of the number of data bytes in actual use in that sector. ICAX6 15 1 Spare auxiliary byte.
Offset is the number you would add to the start of the IOCB in order to POKE a value into the right field, such as POKE 832 + OFFSET, 12.
The following is a list of the values associated with OPEN parameter number 1. Most of these values are listed in Your Atari 400/800. These are the values found in ICAX1, not the ICCOM values.
Device Task # Description ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── Cassette 4 Read recorder 8 Write (can do either, not both) Disk 4 Read file 6 Read disk directory 8 Write new file. Any file OPENed in this mode will be deleted, and the first byte written will be at the start of the file. 9 Write — append. In this mode the file is left intact, and bytes written are put at the end of the file. 12 Read and write — update. Bytes read or written will start at the first byte in the file. D: if BIT 0 equals one and BIT 3 equals one in AUX1, then operation will be appended output. Screen 8 Screen output editor 12 Keyboard input and screen output (E:) 13 Screen input and output E: BIT 0 equals one is a forced read (GET command). Keyboard 4 Read Printer 8 Write RS-232 5 Concurrent read serial 8 Block write port 9 Concurrent write 13 Concurrent read and write Clear Text Read Screen Window Oper- after GR. also ation Screen 8 yes no no display 12 yes no yes (S:) 24 yes yes no 28 yes yes yes 40 no no no 44 no no yes 56 no yes no 60 no yes yes
Note that with S:, the screen is always cleared in GR.0 and there is no separate text window in GR.0 unless specifically user-designed. Without the screen clear, the previous material will remain on screen between GRAPHICS mode changes, but will not be legible in other modes. The values with S: are placed in the first auxiliary byte of the IOCB. All of the screen values above are also a write operation.
The second parameter in an OPEN statement (placed in the second auxiliary byte) is far more restricted in its use. Usually set to zero. If set to 128 ($80) for the cassette, it changes from normal to short inter-record gaps (AUX2).
With the Atari 820 printer, 83 ($53; AUX byte two) means sideways characters (Atari 820 printer only). Other printer variables (all for AUX2 as well) are: 70 ($4E) for normal 40 character per line printing and 87 ($57) for wide printing mode. With the screen (S:), a number can be used to specify the GRAPHICS modes zero through eleven. If mode zero is chosen, then the AUX1 options as above are ignored.
For the ICCOM field, the following values apply (BASIC XIO commands use the same values):
Command Decimal Hex ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── Open channel 3 3 Get text record (line) 5 5 BASIC: INPUT #n,A Get binary record (buffer) 7 7 BASIC: GET #n,A Put text record (line) 9 9 Put binary record (buffer) 11 B BASIC: PUT #n,A Close 12 C Dynamic (channel) status 13 D
BASIC uses a special “put byte” vector in the IOCB to talk directly to the handler for the PRINT#n,A$ command. Disk File Management System Commands (BASIC XIO command):
Rename 32 20 Erase (delete) 33 21 Protect (lock) 35 23 Unprotect (unlock) 36 24 Point 37 25 Note 38 26 Format 254 FE
In addition, XIO supports the following commands:
Get character 7 7 Put character 11 B Draw line 17 11 Display handler only. Fill area 18 12 Display handler only.
FILL is done in BASIC with XIO 18,#6,12,0,"S:" (see the BASIC Reference COMPUTE!, for details).
For the RS-232 (R:), XIO supports:
Output partial block 32 20 Control RTS,XMT,DTR 34 22 Baud, stop bits, word size 36 24 Translation mode 38 26 Concurrent mode 40 28
(see the 850 Interface Manual for details)
CIO treats any command byte value greater than 13 ($D) as a special case, and transfers control over to the device handler for processing. For more information on IOCB use, read Bill Wilkinson’s “Insight: Atari” columns in COMPUTE!, November and December 1981, and in Microcomputing, August 1982. Also refer to the OS User’s Manual and De Re Atari.
Printer buffer. The printer handler collects output from LPRINT statements here, sending them to the printer when an End of Line (EOL; carriage return) occurs or when the buffer is full. Normally this is 40 characters. However, if an LPRINT statement generates fewer than 40 characters and ends with a semicolon or 38 characters and ends with a comma, Atari sends the entire buffer on each FOR-NEXT loop, the extra bytes filled with zeros. The output of the next LPRINT statement will appear in column 41 of the same line. According to the Operating System User’s Manual, the Atari supports an 80-column printer device called P2:. Using OPEN and PUT statements to P2: may solve this problem. Here is a small routine for a GR.0 BASIC screen dump:
10 DIM TEXT$(1000):OPEN#2,4,0,"S:":TRAP 1050 . . . 1000 FOR LINE=1 TO 24:POSITION PEEK(82),LINE 1010 FOR COL=1 TO 38:GET #2,CHAR:TEXT$(COL,COL)=CHR$(CHAR) 1020 NEXT COL:GET #2,COL 1030 LPRINT TEXT$ 1040 NEXT LINE 1050 RETURN
You can use the PTABW register at location 201 ($C9) to set the number of spaces between print elements separated by a comma. The minimum number of spaces accepted is two. LPRINT automatically uses channel seven for output. No OPEN statement is necessary and CLOSE is automatic.
Locations 1000 to 1020 ($3E8 to $3FC) are a reserved spare buffer area.
Cassette buffer. These locations are used by the cassette handler to read data from and write data to the program (tape) recorder. The 128 ($80) data bytes for each cassette record are stored beginning at 1024 ($400 - page four). The current buffer size is found in location 650 ($28A). Location 61 ($3D) points to the current byte being written or read.
CASBUF is also used in the disk boot process; the first disk record is read into this buffer.
A cassette record consists of 132 bytes: two control bytes set to 85 ($55; alternating zeros and ones) for speed measurement in the baud rate correction routine; one control byte (see below); 128 data bytes (compared to 125 data bytes for a disk sector), and a checksum byte. Only the data bytes are stored in the cassette buffer. See De Re Atari for more information on the cassette recorder.
Value Meaning 250 ($FA) Partial record follows. The actual number of bytes is stored in the last byte of the record (127). 252 ($FC) Record full; 128 bytes follow. 254 ($FE) End of File (EOF) record; followed by 128 zero bytes.
Locations 1152 to 1791 ($480 to $6FF) are for user RAM (outer environment) requirements, depending on the amount of RAM available in the machine. Provided you don’t use the FP package or BASIC, you have 640 ($280) free bytes here.
Locations 1152 to 1279 ($480 to $4FF) are 128 ($80) spare bytes.
The floating point package, when used, requires locations 1406 to 1535 ($57E to $5FF).
LBUFF prefix one.
LBUFF prefix two.
BASIC line buffer; 128 bytes. Used as an output result buffer for the FP to ASCII routine at 55526 ($D8E6). The input buffer is pointed to by locations 243, 244 ($F3, $F4).
Polynomial arguments (FP use).
FP scratch pad use.
Ditto. The end of the buffer is named LBFEND.
Page six: 256 ($FF) bytes protected from OS use. Page six is not used by the OS and may be safely used for machine language subroutines, special I/O handlers, altered character sets, or whatever the user can fit into the space. Some problem may arise when the INPUT statement retrieves more than 128 characters. The locations from 1536 to 1663 ($600 to $67F) are then immediately used as a buffer for the excess characters. To avoid overflow, keep INPUT statements from retrieving more than 128 characters. The valFORTH implementation of fig-FORTH (from ValPar International) uses all of page six for its boot code, so it is not available for your use. However, FORTH allows you to reserve other blocks of memory for similar functions. BASIC A+ uses locations $0600 - $67F.
Locations 1792 to the address specified by LOMEM (locations 128, 129 ($80, $81) - the pointer to BASIC low memory) are also used by DOS and the File Management System (FMS). Refer to the DOS source code and Inside Atari DOS for details. The addresses which follow are those for DOS 2.0S, the official Atari DOS at the time of this writing. Another DOS is available as an alternative to DOS 2.0 — K-DOS (TM), from K-BYTE (R). K-DOS is not menu driven but command driven. It does not use all of the same memory locations as the Atari DOS although it does use a modified version of the Atari FMS. (Another command-driven DOS, called OS/A+, is completely compatible with DOS 2.0S and is available from OSS, the creators of DOS 2.0S.)
File management system RAM (pages seven to fifteen). FMS provides the interface between BASIC or DUP and the disk drive. It is a sophisticated device driver for all I/O operations involving the D: device. It allows disk users to use the special BASIC XIO disk commands (see the IOCB area 832 to 959; $340 to $3BF). It is resident in RAM below your BASIC RAM and provides the entry point to DOS when called by BASIC.
DUP.SYS RAM. The top will vary with the amount of buffer storage space allocated to the drive and sector buffers.
Drive buffers and sector-data buffers. The amount of memory will vary with the number of buffers allocated.
Non-resident portion of DUP.SYS, DOS utility routines. DUP provides the utilities chosen from the DOS menu page, not from BASIC. It is not resident in RAM when you are using BASIC or another cartridge; rather it is loaded when DOS is called from BASIC or on autoboot powerup (and no cartridge supersedes it). When DUP is loaded, it overwrites the lower portion of memory. If you wish to save your program from destruction, you must have created a MEM.SAV file on disk before you called DOS from your program. See the DOS Reference Manual.
Locations 1792 to 2047 ($700 to $7FF; page seven) are the user boot area. MEMLO and LOMEM point to 1792 when no DOS or DUP program is loaded. This area can then be used for your BASIC or machine language programs. The lowest free memory address is 1792, and programs may extend upwards from here. There is a one-page buffer before the program space used for the tokenization of BASIC statements, pointed to by locations 128, 129 ($80, $81). Actually a program may start from any address above 1792 and below the screen display list as long as it does not overwrite this buffer if it is a BASIC program. Also, 1792 is the start of the FMS portion of DOS when resident.
When software is booted, the MEMLO pointer at 743,744 ($2E7,$2E8) in the OS data base (locations 512 to 1151; $512 to $47F) points to the first free memory location above that software; otherwise, it points to 1792. The DUP portion of DOS is partly resident here, starting at 5440 ($1540) and running to 13062 ($1540 to $3306). The location of the OS disk boot entry routine (DOBOOT) is 62189 ($F2ED). The standard Atari DOS 2.0S takes up sectors one through 83 ($53) on a disk. Sector one is the boot sector. Sectors two through 40 ($28) are the FMS portion, and sectors 41 ($29) through 83 are the DUP.SYS portion of DOS. For more information, see the DOS and OS source listings and Inside Atari DOS.
Disk boot records (sector one on a disk) are read into 1792 ($700). Starting from $700 (1792), the format is:Byte Hex Label and use 0 700 BFLAG: Boot flag equals zero (unused). 1 701 BRCNT: Number of consecutive sectors to read (if the file is DOS, then BRCNT equals one). 2,3 702,703 BLDADR: Boot sector load address ($700). 4,5 704,705 BIWTARR: Initialization address. 6 706 JMP XBCONT: Boot continuation vector; $4C (76): JMP command to next address in bytes seven and eight. 7,8 707,708 Boot read continuation address (LSB/MSB). 9 709 SABYTE: Maximum number of concurrently OPEN files. The default is three (see 1801 below). 10 70A DRVBYT: Drive bits: the maximum number of drives attached to the system. The default is two (see 1802 below). 11 70B (unused) Buffer allocation direction, set to zero. 12,13 70C,70D SASA: Buffer allocation start address. Points to 1995 ($7CB) when DOS is loaded. 14 70E DSFLG: DOS flag. Boot flag set to non-zero Must be non-zero for the second phase of boot process. Indicates that the file DOS.SYS has been written to the disk; zero equals no DOS file, one equals 128 byte sector disk, two equals 256 byte sector disk. 15,16 70F,710 DFLINK: Pointer to the first sector of DOS.SYS file. 17 711 BLDISP: Displacement to the sector link byte 125 ($7D). The sector link byte is the pointer to the next disk sector to be read. If it is zero, the end of the file has been reached. 18,19 712,713 DFLADR: Address of the start of DOS.SYS file. 20+ 714+ Continuation of the boot load file. See the OS User’s Manual and Chapter 20 of Inside Atari DOS.
Data from the boot sector is placed in locations 1792 to 1916 ($700 to $77C). Data from the rest of DOS.SYS is located starting from 1917 ($77D). All binary file loads start with 255 ($FF). The next four bytes are the start and end addresses (LSB/MSB), respectively.
This records the limit on the number of files that can be open simultaneously. Usually set to three, the maximum is seven (one for each available IOCB — remember IOCB0 is used for the screen display). Each available file takes 128 bytes for a buffer, if you increase the number of buffers, you decrease your RAM space accordingly. You can POKE 1801 with your new number to increase or decrease the number of files and then rewrite DOS (by calling DOS from BASIC and choosing menu selection “H”) and have this number as your default on the new DOS.
The maximum number of disk drives in your system, the DOS 2.0 default value is two. The least four bits are used to record which drives are available, so if you have drives one, three and four, this location would read:
00001101 or 13 in decimal.
Each drive has a separate buffer of 128 bytes reserved for it in RAM. If you have more or less than the default (two), then POKE 1802 with the appropriate number:
1 drive = 1 BIT 0 Binary 00000001 2 drives = 3 BITS 0 & 1 00000011 3 drives = 7 BITS 0, 1 & 2 00000111 4 drives = 15 BITS 0, 1, 2 & 3 00001111
This assumes you have them numbered sequentially. If not, POKE the appropriate decimal translation for the correct binary code: each drive is specified by one of the least four bits from one in BIT 0 to four in BIT 3. If you PEEK(1802) and get back three, for example, it means drives one and two are allocated, not three drives.
You can save your modification to a new disk by calling up DOS and choosing menu selection “H.” This new DOS will then boot up with the number of drives and buffers you have allocated. A one-drive system can save 128 bytes this way (256 if one less data buffer is chosen). See the DOS Manual, page G.87.
Entry point to FMS disk sector I/O routines.
Entry point to the FMS disk handler (?).
Write verify flag for disk I/O operations. POKE with 80 ($50) to turn off the verify function, 87 ($57) to turn it back on. Disk write without verify is faster, but you may get errors in your data. I have had very few errors generated by turning off the verify function, but even one error in critical material can destroy a whole program. Be careful about using this location. You can save DOS (as above with menu selection “H”) without write verify as your new default by writing DOS to a new disk. See the DOS Manual, page F.85. K-DOS’s write-verify flag is located at 1907 ($773).
Entry point to a 21-byte FMS device (disk) handler. The address of this handler is placed in HATABS (locations 794 to 831; $31A to $33F) by the FMS initialization routine. When CIO needs to call an FMS function, it will locate the address of that function via the handler address table. See Chapters 8-11 of Inside Atari DOS, published by COMPUTE! Books.
FMS initialization routine. The entry point is 1995 ($7CB). DUP calls FMS at this point. K-DOS uses the same location for its initialization routine.
OPEN routines, including open for append, update, and output.
PUT byte routines.
Burst I/O routines.
In COMPUTE!, May and July 1982, Bill Wilkinson discussed BURST I/O, which should not take place when a file is OPEN for update, but does, due to a minor bug in DOS 2.0 (see also Inside Atari DOS, Chapter 12). This will cause update writes to work properly, but update reads to be bad. The following POKEs will correct the problem. Remember to save DOS back to a new disk.
POKE 2592,130 ($A20,82) POKE 2593,19 ($A21,13) POKE 2594,73 ($A22,49) POKE 2595,12 ($A23,0C) POKE 2596,240 ($A24,F0) POKE 2597,36 ($A25,24) POKE 2598,106 ($A26,6A) POKE 2599,234 ($A27,EA) POKE 2625,16 ($A41,10) POKE 2773,31 ($AD5,1F)
(Note that the July 1982 issue of COMPUTE! contained a typo where the value to be POKEd into 2773 was mistakenly listed as 13, not 31!) Wilkinson points out that one way to completely disable BURST I/O (useful in some circumstances such as using the DOS BINARY SAVE to save the contents of ROM to disk!) is by:
POKE 2606,0 ($A2E,0)
This, however, will make the system LOAD and SAVE files considerably more slowly, so it’s not recommended as a permanent change to DOS.
GET byte routines, including GET file routines.
Disk STATUS routines.
IOCB CLOSE routines.
Start of the device-dependent command routines, including the BASIC XIO special commands:
RENAME a file.
DELETE a file.
LOCK and UNLOCK files. UNLOCK routines begin at 3203 ($C83).
BASIC POINT command.
BASIC NOTE command. See the DOS Manual for information regarding these two BASIC commands, and see De Re Atari for a sample use.
Format the entire diskette.
List the disk directory.
File name decode, including wildcard validity test. The current file name is pointed to by ZBUFP at locations 67, 68 ($43, $44).
By POKEing the desired ATASCII value here, you can change the wildcard character (*; ATASCII 42, $2A) used by DOS to any other character of your choice. Your altered DOS can be saved back to disk with DOS menu selection “H”.
By POKEing 3818 with 33 and 3822 with 123 ($21, $7B), you can modify DOS to accept file names with punctuation, numbers and lowercase as valid; 33 is the low range of the ATASCII code and 127 the high range (lower or higher values are control and graphics codes and inverse characters). Of course, any unmodified DOS still won’t accept such file names. You could actually change the range to any value from zero to 255 at your discretion. This, however, may cause other problems with such ATASCII codes as spaces and the wildcard (*; see above). Can be saved back to disk with menu selection “H”.
Store the file name characters that result from the file name decode routines.
Directory search routines; search for the user-specified file name.
Write data sector routine.
Read data sector routine.
Read and write directory sector routines.
Read or write the volume table of contents (VTOC) sectors.
Free sector(s) routine; returns the number of free sectors on a disk that are available to the user.
Get sector routine; retrieves a free sector for use from the disk.
SETUP — initialization of the FMS parameters. Prepares FMS to deal with the operation to be performed and to access a particular file. See Inside Atari DOS, Chapter seven.
Write new DOS.SYS file to disk routine, including new FMS file to DOS.SYS file.
Start of the FMS error number table.
Miscellaneous FMS storage area: sector length, drive tape, stack level, file number, etc.
Start of the FMS File Control Blocks (FCB’s). FCB’s are used to store information about files currently being processed. The eight FCB’s are 16-byte blocks that correspond in a one-on-one manner with the IOCB’s. Each FCB consist of:
Label Bytes Purpose FCBFNO 1 File number of the current file being processed. FCBOTC 1 Which mode the file has been OPENed for: append is one, directory read is two, input is four, output is eight, update is twelve. SPARE 1 Not used. FCBSLT 1 Flag for the sector length type; 128 or 256 bytes FCBFLG 1 Working flag. If equal to 128 ($80), then the file has been OPENed for output or append and may acquire new data sectors. If the value is 64, then sector is in the memory buffer awaiting writing to disk. FCBMLN 1 Maximum sector data length; 125 or 253 bytes depending on drive type (single or double density). The last three sector bytes are reserved for sector link and byte count data. FCBDLN 1 Current byte to be read or modified in the operation in a data sector. FCBBUF 1 Tell FMS which buffer has been allocated to the file being processed. FCBCSN 2 Sector number of the sector currently in the buffer. FCBLSN 2 Number of the next sector in data chain. FCBSSN 2 Starting sectors for appended data if the file has been OPENed for append. FCBCNT 2 Sector count for the current file.
DUP doesn’t use these FCB’s; it writes to the IOCB’s directly. CIO transfers the control to FMS as the operation demands, then on to SIO.
File directory, a 256 ($100) byte sequential buffer for entries to the disk directory.
Disk directory (VTOC — Volume Table Of Contents) buffer. 64 ($40) bytes are reserved, one byte for each possible file. It also marks the end of FMS. The VTOC (sector 360; $168) is a sequential bit map of each of the 720 sectors on the disk. It starts at byte ten and continues through to byte 99. When a bit is set (one), it indicates that the sector associated is in use.
DUP.SYS initialization address. Beginning of mini-DOS; the RAM-resident portion of DUP. Used for the same purpose in K-DOS.
Contains the location (LSB/MSB) of the DOSVEC (location 10; $A). This is the pointer to the address BASIC will jump to when DOS is called.
Flag to test if DUP is already resident in memory. Zero equals DUP is not there.
Used to store the value of the disk menu option chosen by the user.
If this location reads 128, then a memory file (MEM.SAV) file doesn’t have to be loaded.
Routines to load a MEM.SAV file if it exists.
Listed in the DUP.SYS equates file but never explained in the listings.
Flags that the MEM.SAV file has been loaded. Zero means it has not been loaded.
The MEM.SAV (MEMSAVE) file creation routines begin here. They start with the file name MEM.SAV stored in ATASCII format. The write routines begin at MWRITE, 5958 ($1746). The DOS utility MEMSAVE copies the lower 6000 bytes of memory to disk to save your BASIC program from being destroyed when you call DOS, which then loads DUP.SYS into that area of memory.
DOSINI (see location 12, 13; $C, $D) vector save location. Entry point to DOS on a call from BASIC.
Flag to show if memory has been written to disk using a MEM.SAV file.
Test to see if DOS must load MEM.SAV from the disk before it does a run at cartridge address, then jumps to the cartridge address.
Test to see if DOS must load MEM.SAV before it performs a run at address command from the DOS menu.
MEMSAVE load routines (for the MEM.SAV file).
DUP.SYS warmstart entry. An excellent program to eliminate the need for DUP.SYS and MEM.SAV (not to mention the time required to load them!) was presented in COMPUTE!, July 1982, called MicroDOS; it’s well worth examining. See also “The Atari Wedge,” COMPUTE!, December 1982.
Start of the serial interrupt service routine to output data needed routines in DUP.SYS.
Start of the serial interrupt ready service routines in DUP.SYS.
Start of the drive and data buffers. Drive buffers are numbered sequentially one to four, data buffers one to eight, assuming that many are allocated for each. Normally, the first two buffers are allocated for drives and the next three for data. Buffers are 128 ($80) bytes long each and start at 6908 ($1AFC), 7036 ($1B7C), 7162 ($1BFA) and 7292 ($1C7C). See locations 1801 and 1802 ($709, $70A).
MEMLO (743, 744; $2E7, $2E8) points here when DOS is resident unless the buffer allocation has been altered. MEMLO will point to 7164 for a one drive, two data buffer setup, a saving of 256 bytes. Loading the RS-232 handler from the 850 Interface will move MEMLO up another 1728 bytes. The RS-232 handler in the 850 Interface will only boot (load into memory) if you first boot the AUTORUN.SYS file on your Atari master diskette or use another RS-232 boot program such as a terminal package. The RS-232 handler will boot up into memory if you do not have a disk attached and you have turned it on before turning on the computer. You may still use the printer (parallel) port on the 850 even if the RS-232 handler is not booted.
Beginning of non-resident portion of DUP; 40 ($28) byte parameter buffer.
80 ($50) byte line buffer.
256 ($100) byte data buffer for COPY routines. Copy routines work in 125-byte passes, equal to the number of data bytes in each sector on the disk. There are 256 bytes because Atari had planned a double density drive which has 253 data bytes in each sector.
Miscellaneous variable storage area and data buffers.
Disk menu screen display data is stored here.
This is the top of the minimum RAM required for operation (8K). To use DOS, you must have a minimum of 16K.
Locations 8192 to 32767 ($2000 to $7FFF) are the largest part of the RAM expansion area; this space is generally for your own use. If you have DOS.SYS or DUP.SYS loaded in, they also use a portion of this area to 13062 ($3306) as below:
Start of the DOS utility monitor, including the utilities called when a menu selection function is completed and the display of the “SELECT ITEM” message.
Delete a file.
Copy a file. This area starts with the copy messages. The copy routines themselves begin at PYFIL, 9080 ($2378).
Rename a disk file routines.
Format the entire disk. There is no way to format specific sectors of a disk with the “C” ROMs currently used in your 810 drives. There is a new ROM, the “E” version, which not only allows selective sector formatting, but is also considerably faster. It was not known at the time of this writing whether Atari would release the “E” version.
Start a cartridge.
Run a binary file at the user-specified address.
Start of the write MEM.SAV file to disk routine. The entry point is at MEMSAV, 10138 ($279A).
Write DOS/DUP files to disk.
Test for version two DOS. DOS 2.0S is the latest official DOS, considerably improved over the earlier DOS 1.0. The S stands for single density. Atari had planned to release a dual density drive (the 815), but pulled it out of the production line at the last minute for some obscure high-level reason. A double density drive is available from the Percom company.
Load a binary file into memory. If it has a run address specified in the file, it will autoboot.
Lock and unlock files on a disk.
Duplicate a disk.
Duplicate a file.
Save a binary file.
End of DUP.SYS.
The rest of RAM is available to location 32767 ($7FFF).
Locations 32768 to 40959 ($8000 to $9FFF) are used by the right cartridge (Atari 800 only), when present. When not present, this RAM area is available for use in programs. When the 8K BASIC cartridge is being used, this area most frequently contains the display list and screen memory. As of this writing, the only cartridge that uses this slot is Monkey Wrench from Eastern House Software.
It is possible to have 16K cartridges on the Atari by either combining both slots using two 8K cartridges or simply having one with large enough ROM chips and using one slot. In this case, the entire area from 32768 to 49151 ($8000 to $BFFF) would be used as cartridge ROM.
Technically, the right cartridge slot is checked first for a resident cartridge and initialized, then the left. You can confirm this by putting the Assembler Editor cartridge in the right and BASIC in the left slots. BASIC will boot, but not the ASED. Using FRE(0), you will see, however, that you have 8K less RAM to use; and PEEKing through this area will show that the ASED program is indeed in memory, but that control was passed to BASIC. Control will pass to the ASED cartridge if the cartridges are reversed. This is because the last six bytes of the cartridge programs tell the OS where the program begins — in both cases, it is a location in the area dedicated to the left cartridge. The six bytes are as follows:
Byte Purpose Left (A) Right(B) 49146 ($BFFA) 40954 ($9FFA) Cartridge start address (low byte) 49147 ($BFFB) 40955 ($9FFB) Cartridge start address (high byte) 49148 ($BFFC) 40956,($9FFC) Reads zero if a cartridge is inserted, non-zero when no cartridge is present. This information is passed down to the page zero RAM: if the A cartridge is plugged in, then location 6 will read one; if the B cartridge is plugged in, then location 7 will read one; otherwise they will read zero. 49149 ($BFFD) 40957 ($9FFD) Option byte. If BIT 0 equals one, then boot the disk (else there is no disk boot). If BIT 2 equals one, then initialize and start the cartridge (else initialize but do not start). If BIT 7 equals one, then the cartridge is a diagnostic cartridge which will take control, but not initialize the OS (else non-diagnostic cartridge). Diagnostic cartridges were used by Atari in the development of the system and are not available to the public. 49150 ($BFFE) 40958 ($9FFE) Cartridge initialization address low byte. 49151 ($BFFF) 40959 ($9FFF) Cartridge initialization address high byte. This is the address to which the OS will jump during all powerup and RESETs.
The OS makes temporary use of locations 36876 to 36896 ($900C to $9020) to set up vectors for the interrupt handler. See the OS listings pages 31 and 81. This code was only used in the development system used to design the Atari.
Locations 40960 to 49151 ($A000 to $BFFF) are used by the left cartridge, when present. When not present, this RAM area is available for other use. The display list and the screen display data will be in this area when there is no cartridge present.
Most cartridges use this slot (see above) including the 8K BASIC, Assembler-Editor, and many games. Below are some of the entry points for the routines in Atari 8K BASIC. There is no official Atari listing of the BASIC ROM yet. Many of the addresses below are listed in Your Atari 400/800. Others have been provided in numerous magazine articles and from disassembling the BASIC cartridge.
40960-41036 A000-A04C Cold start. 41037-41055 A04D-A05F Warm start. 41056-42081 A060-A461 Syntax checking routines. 42082-42158 A462-A4AE Search routines. 42159-42508 A4AF-A60C STATEMENT name table. The statement TOKEN list begins at 42161 ($A4B1). You can print a list of these tokens by:
5 ADDRESS=42161 10 IF NOT PEEK(ADDRESS) THEN PRINT :END 15 PRINT TOKEN, 20 BYTE=PEEK(ADDRESS):ADDRESS=ADDRESS+1 30 IF BYTE<128 THEN PRINT CHR$(BYTE);:GOTO 20 40 PRINT CHR$(BYTE-128) 50 ADDRESS=ADDRESS+2:TOKEN=TOKEN+1:GOTO 10
42509-43134 A60D-A87E Syntax tables. The OPERATOR token list begins at 42979 ($A7E3). You can print a list of these tokens by:
5 ADDRESS=42979:TOKEN=16 10 IF NOT PEEK(ADDRESS) THEN PRINT :END 15 PRINT TOKEN, 20 BYTE=PEEK(ADDRESS):ADDRESS=ADDRESS+1 30 IF BYTE<128 THEN PRINT CHR$(BYTE);:GOTO 20 40 PRINT CHR$(BYTE-128) 50 TOKEN=TOKEN+1 60 GOTO 10
See COMPUTE!, January and February 1982; BYTE, February 1982, and De Re Atari for an explanation of BASIC tokens.
43135-43358 A87F-A95E Memory manager. 43359-43519 A95F-A9FF Execute CONT statement. 43520-43631 AA00-AA6F Statement table. 43632-43743 AA70-AADF Operator table. 43744-44094 AAE0-AC3E Execute expression routine. 44095-44163 AC3F-AC83 Operator precedence routine. 44164-45001 AC84-AFC9 Execute operator routine. 45002-45320 AFCA-B108 Execute function routine. 45321-47127 B109-B817 Execute statement routine. 47128-47381 B818-B915 CONT statement subroutines. 47382-47542 B916-B9B6 Error handling routines. 47543-47732 B9B7-BA74 Graphics handling routines. 47733-48548 BA75-BDA4 I/O routines. 48549-49145 BDA5-BFF9 Floating point routines (see below).
Calculate SIN(FR0). Checks DEGFLG (location 251; $FB) to see if trigonometric calculations are in radians (DEGFLG equals zero) or degrees (DEGFLG equals six).
Calculate Cosine (FR0) with carry. FR0 is Floating Point register zero, locations 212-217; $D4-$D9. See the Floating Point package entry points from location 55296 on.
Calculate Arctangent using FR0, with carry.
Calculate square root (FR0) with carry. Note that there is some conflict of addresses for the above routines. The addresses given are from the first edition of De Re Atari. The Atari OS Source Code Listing gives the following addresses for these FP routines:
These are entry points, not actual start addresses.
SIN 48513 ($BD81) COS 48499 ($BD73) ATAN 48707 ($BE43) SQR 48817 ($BEB1)
However, after disassembling the BASIC ROMs, I found that the addresses in De Re Atari appear to be correct.
Left cartridge start address.
A non-zero number here tells the OS that there is no cartridge in the left slot.
Option byte. A cartridge which does not specify a disk boot may use all of the memory from 1152 ($480) to MEMTOP any way it sees fit.
Cartridge initialization address. See the above section on the right slot, 32768 to 40959, for more information.
When a BASIC program is SAVEd, only 14 of the more than 50 page zero locations BASIC uses are written to the disk or cassette with the program. The rest are all recalculated with a NEW or SAVE command, sometimes with RUN or GOTO. These 14 locations are:128,129 80,81 LOMEM 130,131 82,83 VNTP 132,133 84,85 VNTD 134,135 86,87 VVTP 136,137 88,89 STMTAB 138,139 8A,8B STMCUR 140,141 8C,8D STARP
The string/array space is not loaded; STARP is included only to point to the end of the BASIC program.
The two other critical BASIC page zero pointers, which are not SAVEd with the program, are:142,143 8E,8F RUNSTK 144,145 90,91 MEMTOP
For more information concerning Atari BASIC, see the appendix. For detailed description, refer to the Atari BASIC Reference Manual. For more technical information, see De Re Atari, BYTE, February 1982, and COMPUTE!’s First Book of Atari and COMPUTE!’s Second Book of Atari.
Locations 49152 to 53247 ($C000 to $CFFF) are unused. Unfortunately, this rather large 4K block of memory cannot be written to by the user, so it is presently useless. Apparently, this area of ROM is reserved for future expansion. Rumors abound about new Atari OS’s that allow 3-D graphics, 192K of on-board RAM and other delights. Most likely this space will be consumed in the next OS upgrade. PEEKing this area will show it not to be completely empty; it was apparently used for system development in Atari’s paleozoic age.
Although the Atari is technically a 64K machine (1K equals 1024 bytes, so 64K equals 65536 bytes), you don’t really have all 64K to use. The OS takes up 10K; there is the 4K block here that’s unused, plus a few other unused areas in the ROM and, of course, there are the hardware chips. BASIC (or any cartridge) uses another 8K. The bottom 1792 bytes are used by the OS, BASIC, and floating point package. Then DOS and DUP take up their memory space, not to mention the 850 handler if booted — leaving you with more or less 38K of RAM to use for your BASIC programming.
Locations 53248 to 55295 ($D000 to $D7FF) are for ROM for the special I/O chips that Atari uses. The CTIA (or GTIA, depending on which you have) uses memory locations 53248 to 53503 ($D000 to $D0FF). POKEY uses 53760 to 54015 ($D200 to $D2FF). PIA uses 54016 to 54271 ($D300 to $D3FF). ANTIC uses 54272 to 54783 ($D400 to $D5FF). ANTIC, POKEY and G/CTIA are Large Scale Integration (LSI) circuit chips. Don’t confuse this chip ROM with the OS ROM which is be found in higher memory. For the most extensive description of these chips, see the Atari Hardware Manual.
There are two blocks of unused, unavailable memory in the I/O areas: 53504 to 53759 ($D100 to $D1FF) and 54784 to 55295 ($D600 to $D7FF).
Many of the following registers can’t be read directly, since they are hardware registers. Writing to them can often be difficult because in most cases the registers change every 30th second (stage two VBLANK) or even every 60th second (stage one VBLANK)! That’s where the shadow registers mentioned earlier come in. The values written into these ROM locations are drawn from the shadow registers; to effect any “permanent” change in BASIC (i.e., while your program is running), you have to write to these shadow registers (in direct mode or while your program is running; these values will all be reset to their initialization state on RESET or powerup).
Shadow register locations are enclosed in parentheses; see these locations for further descriptions. If no shadow register is mentioned, you may be able to write to the location directly in BASIC. Machine language is fast enough to write to the ROM locations and may be able to bypass the shadow registers entirely.
Another feature of many of these registers is their dual nature. They are read for one value and written to for another. The differences between these functions are noted by the (R) for read and (W) for write functions. You will notice that many of these dual-purpose registers also have two labels.
GTIA (or CTIA) is a special television interface chip designed exclusively for the Atari to process the video signal. ANTIC controls most of the C/GTIA chip functions. The GTIA shifts the display by one-half color clock off what the CTIA displays, so it may display a different color than the CTIA in the same piece of software. However, this shift allows players and playfields to overlap perfectly.
There is no text window available in GTIA modes, but you can create a defined area on your screen with either a DLI (see COMPUTE!, September 1982) or by POKEing the GTIA mode number into location 87 ($57), POKEing 703 with four and then setting the proper bits in location 623 ($26F) for that mode. Only in the former method will you be able to get a readable screen, however. In the latter you will only create a four line, scrolling, unreadable window. You will be able to input and output as with any normal text window; you just won’t be able to read it! GTIA, by the way, apparently stands for “George’s Television Interface Adapter.” Whoever George is, thanks, but what is CTIA?
See the OS User’s Manual, the Hardware Manual, De Re Atari and COMPUTE!, July 1982 to September 1982, for more information.
(W) Horizontal position of player 0. Values from zero to 227 ($E3) are possible but, depending on the size of the playfield, the range can be from 48 ($30) as the leftmost position to 208 ($D0) as the rightmost position. Other positions will be “off screen.” Here are the normal screen boundaries for players and missiles. The values may vary somewhat due to the nature of your TV screen. Players and missiles may be located outside these boundaries, but will not be visible (off screen):
Top 32 for single, 16 for double line resolution ┌────────────────────────────────┐ │ │ │ │ │ │ 48 for both │ │ 208 for both resolutions │ │ resolutions │ │ │ │ │ │ └────────────────────────────────┘ Bottom 224 for single, 112 for double line resolution
Although you can POKE to these horizontal position registers, they are reset to zero immediately. The player or missile will stay on the screen at the location specified by the POKE, but in order to move it using the horizontal position registers, you can’t use:
POKE 53248, PEEK(53248) + n (or -n)
which will end up generating an error message. Instead, you need to use something like this:
10 POKE 704,220:GRAPHICS 1:HPOS=53248:POKE 623,8 20 N=100:POKE HPOS,N:POKE 53261,255 30 IF STICK(0)=11 THEN N=N-1:POKE HPOS,N:PRINT N 40 IF STICK(0)=7 THEN N=N+1:POKE HPOS,N:PRINT N 50 GOTO 30
There are no vertical position registers for P/M graphics, so you must use software routines to move players vertically. One idea for vertical motion is to reposition the player within the P/M region rather than the screen RAM. For example, the program below uses a small machine language routine to accomplish this move:
1 REM LINES 5 TO 70 SET UP THE PLAYER 5 KEEP=PEEK(106)-16 10 POKE 106,KEEP:POKE 54279,KEEP 20 GRAPHICS 7+16:POKE 704,78:POKE 559,46:POKE 53277,3 30 PMBASE=KEEP*256 40 FOR LOOP=PMBASE+512 TO PMBASE+640:POKE LOOP,0:NEXT LOOP:REM CLEAR OUT MEMORY FIRST 50 X=100:Y=10:POKE 53248,X 60 FOR LOOP=0 TO 7:READ BYTE:POKE PMBASE+512+Y+LOOP,BYTE:NEXT LOOP:REM PLAYER GRAPHICS INTO MEMORY 70 DATA 129,153,189,255,255,189,153,129 80 REM LINES 100 TO 170 SET UP MACHINE LANGUAGE ROUTINE 100 DIM UP$(21),DOWN$(21):UP=ADR(UP$):DOWN=ADR(DOWN$) 110 FOR LOOP=UP TO UP+20:READ BYTE:POKE LOOP,BYTE:NEXT LOOP 120 FOR LOOP=DOWN TO DOWN+20:READ BYTE:POKE LOOP,BYTE:NEXT LOOP 130 DATA 104,104,133,204,104,133,203,160,1,177 140 DATA 203,136,145,203,200,200,192,11,208,245,96 150 DATA 104,104,133,204,104,133,203,160,10,177 160 DATA 203,200,145,203,136,136,192,255,208,245,96 200 REM VERTICAL CONTROL 210 IF STICK(0)=14 THEN GOSUB 300 220 IF STICK(0)=13 THEN D=USR(DOWN,PMBASE+511+Y):Y=Y+1 250 GOTO 210 300 U=USR(UP,PMBASE+511+Y):Y=Y-1 310 RETURN
This will move any nine-line (or less) size player vertically with the joystick. If you have a larger player size, increase the 11 in line 140 to a number two larger than the number of vertical lines the player uses, and change the ten in line 150 to one greater than the number of lines. To add horizontal movement, add the following lines:
6 HPOS=53248 230 IF STICK(0)=11 THEN X=X-1:POKE HPOS,X 240 IF STICK(0)=7 THEN X=X+1:POKE HPOS,X
You can use the routine to move any player by changing the number 511 in the USR calls to one less than the start address of the object to be moved. See the appendix for a map of P/M graphics memory use. Missiles are more difficult to move vertically with this routine, since it moves an entire byte, not bits. It would be useful for moving all four missiles vertically if you need to do so; they could still be moved horizontally in an individual manner.
See COMPUTE!, December 1981, February 1982, and May 1982, for some solutions and some machine language move routines, and COMPUTE!, October 1981, for a solution with animation involving P/M graphics.
(R) Missile 0 to playfield collision. This register will tell you which playfield the object has “collided” with, i.e., overlapped. If missile 0 collides with playfield two, the register would read four and so on. Bit use is:
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Playfield .....unused..... 3 2 1 0 Decimal ................ 8 4 2 1
(W) Horizontal position of player 1.
(R) Missile 1 to playfield collision.
(W) Horizontal position of player 2.
(R) Missile 2 to playfield collision.
(W) Horizontal position of player 3.
(R) Missile 3 to playfield collision.
(W) Horizontal position of missile 0. Missiles move horizontally like players. See the note in 53248 ($D000) concerning the use of horizontal registers.
(R) Player 0 to playfield collisions. There are some problems using collision detection in graphics modes nine to eleven. There are no obviously recognized collisions in GR.9 and GR.11. In GR.10 collisions work only for the playfield colors that correspond to the usual playfield registers. Also, the background (BAK) color is set by PCOLR0 (location 704; $2C0) rather than the usual COLOR4 (location 712; $2C8), which will affect the priority detection. In GR.10, playfield colors set by PCOLR0 to PCOLR3 (704 to 707; $2C0 to $2C3) behave like players where priority is concerned. Bit use is:
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Playfield .....unused..... 3 2 1 0 Decimal ................ 8 4 2 1
(W) Horizontal position of missile 1.
(R) Player 1 to playfield collisions.
(W) Horizonal position of missile 2.
(R) Player 2 to playfield collisions.
(W) Horizontal position of missile 3.
(R) Player 3 to playfield collisions.
(W) Size of player 0. POKE with zero or two for normal size (eight color clocks wide), POKE with one to double a player’s width (sixteen color clocks wide), and POKE with three for quadruple width (32 color clocks wide). Each player can have its own width set. A normal size player might look something like this:
00011000 00111100 01111110 11111111 11111111 01111110 00111100 00011000
In double width, the same player would like this:
0000001111000000 0000111111110000 0011111111111100 0011111111111100 0000111111110000 0000001111000000
In quadruple width, the same player would become:
00000000000011111111000000000000 00000000111111111111111100000000 00001111111111111111111111110000 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 00001111111111111111111111110000 00000000111111111111111100000000 00000000000011111111000000000000
Bit use is:
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Size: .....unused..... 0 0 Normal (8 color clocks) 0 1 Double (16 color clocks) 1 0 Normal 1 1 Quadruple (32 color clocks)
(R) Missile 0 to player collisions. There is no missile-to-missile collision register. Bit use is:
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Player ..unused.. 3 2 1 0 Decimal .......... 8 4 2 1
(W) Size of player 1.
(R) Missile 1 to player collisions.
(W) Size of player 2.
(R) Missile 2 to player collisions.
(W) Size of player 3.
(R) Missile 3 to player collisions.
(W) Size for all missiles; set bits as below (decimal values included):
Bits Size: Normal Double Quadruple 7 & 6: missile 3 0,128 64 192 5 & 4: missile 2 0, 32 16 48 3 & 2: missile l 0, 8 4 12 1 & 0: missile 0 0, 2 1 3
where turning on the bits in each each pair above does as follows:
0 and 0: normal size — two color clocks wide 0 and 1: twice normal size — four color clocks wide 1 and 0: normal size 1 and 1: four times normal size — eight color clocks wide
So, to get a double-sized missile 2, you would set BITs 5 and 6, or POKE 53260,48. Each missile can have a size set separately from the other missiles or players when using the GRAF registers.
A number of sources, including De Re Atari, say that you can set neither missile sizes nor shapes separately. Here’s a routine to show that you can in fact do both:
10 POKE 53265,255:REM SHAPE START 15 GR.7 20 POKE 623,1:REM SET PRIORITIES 30 FOR X=1 TO 25 35 F=50 40 FOR C=704 TO 707:POKE C,F+X:F=F+50:NEXT C:REM COLOURS 45 S=100 50 FOR P=53252 TO 53255:POKE P,S+X:S=S+20:NEXT P:REM SCREEN POSITIONS 60 NEXT X 70 INPUT A,B:REM MISSILE SIZE AND SHAPES 80 POKE 53260,A:POKE 53265,5 100 GOTO 30
Here’s another example using DMA; GRACTL and DACTL (53277 and 54272; $D01D and $D400):
10 POKE 623,1:POKE 559,54:POKE 54279,224:POKE 53277,1 20 FOR N=53252 TO 53255:POKE N,100+X:X=X+10:NEXT N:X=0 30 INPUT SIZE:POKE 53260,SIZE 40 GOTO 30
See 54279 ($D407) for more information on P/M graphics.
(R) Player 0 to player collisions. Bit use is:
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Player ...unused.... 3 2 1 0 Decimal ............. 8 4 2 1
(W) Graphics shape for player 0 written directly to the player graphics register. In using these registers, you bypass ANTIC. You only use the GRAFP# registers when you are not using Direct Memory Access (DMA: see GRACTL at 53277). If DMA is enabled, then the graphics registers will be loaded automatically from the area specified by PMBASE (54279; $D407).
The GRAF registers can only write a single byte to the playfield, but it runs the entire height of the screen. Try this to see:
10 POKE 53248,160:REM SET HORIZONTAL POSITION OF PLAYER 0 20 POKE 704,245:REM SET PLAYER 0 COLOUR TO ORANGE 30 POKE 53261,203:REM BIT PATTERN 11001011
To remove it, POKE 53261 with zero. The bit order runs from seven to zero, left to right across the TV screen. Each bit set will appear as a vertical line on the screen. A value of 255 means all bits are set, creating a wide vertical line. You can also use the size registers to change the player width. Using the GRAF registers will allow you to use players and missiles for such things as boundaries on game or text fields quite easily.
(R) Player 1 to player collisions.
(W) Graphics for player 1.
(R) Player 2 to player collisions.
(W) Graphics for player 3.
(R) Player 3 to player collisions.
(W) Graphics for player 3.
(R) Joystick trigger 0 (644). Controller jack one, pin six. For all triggers, zero equals button pressed, one equals not pressed. If BIT 2 of GRACTL (53277; $D01D) is set to one, then all TRIG BITs 0 are latched when the button is pressed (set to zero) and are only reset to one (not pressed) when BIT 2 of GRACTL is reset to zero. The effect of latching the triggers is to return a constant “button pressed” read until reset.
(W) Graphics for all missiles, not used with DMA. GRAFM works the same as GRAFP0 above. Each pair of bits represents one missile, with the same allocation as in 53260 ($D00C) above.
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Missile -3- -2- -1- -0-
Each bit set will create a vertical line running the entire height of the TV screen. Missile graphics shapes may be set separately from each other by using the appropriate bit pairs. To mask out unwanted players, write zeros to the bits as above.
(R) Joystick trigger 1 (645). Controller jack two, pin six.
(W) Color and luminance of player and missile 0 (704). Missiles share the same colors as their associated players except when joined together to make a fifth player. Then they take on the same value as in location 53733 ($D019; color register 3).
(R) Joystick trigger 2 (646). Controller jack three, pin six.
(W) Color and luminance of player and missile 1 (705).
(R) Joystick trigger 3 (647). Controller jack four, pin six.
(W) Color and luminance of player and missile 2 (706).
(R) Used to determine if the Atari is PAL (European and Israeli TV compatible when BITs 1 - 3 equal zero) or NTSC (North American compatible when BITs 1 - 3 equal one; 14 decimal, $E). European Ataris run 12% slower if tied to the VBLANK cycle (the PAL VBLANK cycle is every 50th second rather than every 60th second). They use only one CPU clock at three MHZ, so the 6502 runs at 2.217 MHZ — 25% faster than North American Ataris. Also, their $E000 and $F000 ROMs are different, so there are possible incompatibilities with North American Ataris in the cassette handling routines. There is a third TV standard called SECAM, used in France, the USSR, and parts of Africa. I am unaware if there is any Atari support for SECAM standards.
PAL TV has more scan lines per frame, 312 compared to 262. NTSC Ataris compensate by adding extra lines at the beginning of the VBLANK routine. Display lists do not have to be altered, and colors are the same because of a hardware modification.
Color and luminance of player and missile 3 (707).
Color and luminance of playfield zero (708).
Color and luminance of playfield one (709).
Color and luminance of playfield two (710).
Color and luminance of playfield three (711).
Color and luminance of the background (BAK).(712).
(W) Priority selection register. PRIOR establishes which objects on the screen (players, missiles, and playfields) will be in front of other objects. Values used in this register are also described at location 623 ($26F), the shadow register. If you use conflicting priorities, objects whose priorities are in conflict will turn black in their overlap region.
Priority order (Decimal values in brackets):
Bit 0 = 1 (1): Bit 1 = 1 (2): Player 0 Player 0 Player 1 Player 1 Player 2 Playfield 0 Player 3 Playfield 1 Playfield 0 Playfield 2 Playfield 1 Playfield 3 and Player 5 Playfield 2 Player 2 Playfield 3 and Player 5 Player 3 Background Background Bit 2 = 1 (4): Bit 3 = 1 (8): Playfield 0 Playfield 0 Playfield 1 Playfield 1 Playfield 2 Player 0 Playfield 3 and Player 5 Player 1 Player 0 Player 2 Player 1 Player 3 Player 2 Playfield 2 Player 3 Playfield 3 and Player 5 Background Background Bit 4 = 1: Enable a fifth player out of the four missiles. Bit 5 = 1: Overlap of players 0 and 1, 2 and 3 is third color (else overlap is black). The resulting color is a logical OR of the two player colors. Bits 6 and 7 are used to select GTIA modes: 0 0 = no GTIA modes 0 1 = GTIA GR.9 1 0 = GTIA GR.10 1 1 = GTIA GR.11
(W) Vertical delay register. Used to give one-line resolution movement capability in the vertical positioning of an object when the two line resolution display is enabled. Setting a bit in VDELAY to one moves the corresponding object down by one TV line. If DMA is enabled, then moving an object by more than one line is accomplished by moving bits in the memory map instead.
Bit Decimal Object 7 128 Player 3 6 64 Player 2 5 32 Player 1 4 16 Player 0 3 8 Missile 3 2 4 Missile 2 1 2 Missile 1 0 1 Missile 0
(W) Used with DMACTL (location 54272; $D400) to latch all stick and paddle triggers (to remember if triggers on joysticks or paddles have been pressed), to turn on players and to turn on missiles. To get the values to be POKEd here, add the following options together for the desired function:
Decimal Bit To turn on missiles 1 0 To turn on players 2 1 To latch trigger inputs 4 2
To revoke P/M authorization and turn off both players and missiles, POKE 53277,0. Once latched, triggers will give a continuous “button pressed” read the first time they are pressed until BIT 2 is restored to zero. Triggers are placed in “latched” mode when each individual trigger is pressed, but you cannot set the latch mode for individual triggers.
Have you ever hit BREAK during a program and still had players or their residue left on the screen? Sometimes hitting RESET doesn’t clear this material from the screen. There are ways to get rid of it:
POKE 623,4: This moves all players behind playfields. POKE 53277,0: This should turn them off. POKE 559,2: This should return you to a blank screen.
Make sure you SAVE your program before POKEing, just in case!
(W) POKE with any number to clear all player/missile collision registers. It is important to clear this register often in a program — such as a game — which frequently tests for collisions. Otherwise, old collision values may remain and confuse the program. A good way to do this is to POKE HITCLR just before an event which may lead to a collision; for example, right before a joystick or paddle is “read” to move a player or fire a missile. Then test for a collision immediately after the action has taken place. Remember that multiple collisions cause sums of the collision values to be written to the collision registers; if you do not clear HITCLR often enough, a program checking for individual collisions will be thrown off by these sums.
(W/R) Used to see if one of the three yellow console buttons has been pressed (not the RESET button!). To clear the register, POKE CONSOL with eight. POKEing any number from zero to eight will cause a click from the speaker. A FOR-NEXT loop that alternately POKEs CONSOL with eight and zero or just zero, since the OS put in an 8 every 1/60 second, will produce a buzz. Values PEEKed will range from zero to seven according to the following table:
│Key Value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 │ ├────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤ │OPTION X X X X │ │SELECT X X X X │ │START X X X X │ └────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘ Bits 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
Where zero means all keys have been pressed, one means OPTION and SELECT have been pressed, etc., to seven, which means no keys have been pressed. CONSOL is updated every stage two VBLANK procedure with the value eight.
It is possible to use the console speaker to generate different sounds. Here is one idea based on an article in COMPUTE!, August 1981:
10 GOSUB 1000 20 TEST=USR(1536) 999 END 1000 FOR LOOP=0 TO 26:READ BYTE:POKE 1536+LOOP,BYTE:NEXT LOOP:RETURN 1010 DATA 104,162,255,169,255,141,31,208,169 1020 DATA 0,160,240,136,208,253,141,31,208,160 1030 DATA 240,136,208,253,202,208,233,96
To change the tone, you POKE 1547 and 1555 with a higher or lower value (both are set to 240 above). To change the tone duration, you POKE 1538 with a lower value (it is set to 255 in the routine above). Do these before you do your USR call or alter the DATA statements to permanently change the values in your own program. Turn off DMA (see location 559) to get clearer tones.
Locations 53280 to 53503 ($D020 to $D0FF) are repeats of locations 53248 to 53279 ($D000 to $D01F). You can’t use any of the repeated locations; consider them “filler.” They maybe used for other purposes in any Atari OS upgrade.
Locations 53504 to 53759 ($D100 to $D1FF) are unused. These locations are not empty; you can PEEK into them and find out what’s there. They cannot, however, be user-altered.
POKEY is a digital I/O chip that controls the audio frequency and control registers, frequency dividers, poly noise counters, pot (paddle) controllers, the random number generator, keyboard scan, serial port I/O, and the IRQ interrupts.
The AUDF# (audio frequency) locations are used for the pitch for the corresponding sound channels, while the AUDC# (audio control registers) are the volume and distortion values for those same channels. To POKE sound values, you must first POKE zero into locations 53768 ($D208) and a three into 53775 ($D20F).
Frequency values can range from zero to 255 ($FF), although the value is increased by the computer by one to range from one to 256. Note that the sum of the volumes should not exceed 32, since volume is controlled by the least four bits. It is set from zero as no volume to 15 ($F) as the highest. A POKE with 16 ($10) forces sound output even if volume is not set (i.e., it pushes the speaker cone out. A tiny “pop” will be heard). The upper four bits control distortion: 192 ($C0) is for pure tone; other values range from 32 to 192. Note that in BASIC, the BREAK key will not turn off the sound; RESET will, however. See De Re Atari and BYTE, April 1982, for more information on sound generation.
The AUDF registers are also used as the POKEY hardware timers. These are generally used when counting an interval less than one VBLANK. For longer intervals, use the software timers in locations 536 to 545 ($218 to $221). You load the AUDCTL register with the number for the desired clock frequency. You then set the volume to zero in the AUDC register associated with the AUDF register you plan to use as a timer. You load the AUDF register itself with the number of clock intervals you wish to count. Then you load your interrupt routine into memory, and POKE the address into the appropriate timer vector between locations 528 and 533 ($210 and $215). You must set the proper bit(s) in IRQEN and its shadow register POKMSK at location 16 ($10) to enable the interrupt. Finally, you load STIMER with any value to load and start the timer(s). The OS will force a jump to the timer vector and then to your routine when the AUDF register counts down to zero. Timer processing can be preempted by ANTIC’s DMA, a DLI, or the VBLANK process.
POT values are for the paddles, ranging from zero to 240, increasing as the paddle knob is turned counterclockwise, but values less than 40 and greater than 200 represent an area on either edge of the screen that may not be visible on all TV sets or monitors.
(W) Audio channel one frequency. This is actually a number (N) used in a “divide by N circuit”; for every N pulses coming in (as set by the POKEY clock), one pulse goes out. As N gets larger, output pulses will decrease, and thus the sound produced will be a lower note. N can be in the range from one to 256; POKEY adds one to the value in the AUDF register. See BYTE, April 1982, for a program to create chords instead of single tones.
(R) Pot (paddle) 0 (624); pot is short for potentiometer. Turning the paddle knob clockwise results in decreasing pot values. For machine language use: these pot values are valid only 228 scan lines after the POTGO command or after ALLPOT changes (see 53768; $D208 and 53771; $D20B). POT registers continually count down to zero, decrementing every scan line. They are reset to 228 when they reach zero or by the values read from the shadow registers. This makes them useful as system timers. See COMPUTE!, February 1982, for an example of this use.
The POTGO sequence (see 53771; $D20B) resets the POT registers to zero, then reads them 228 scan lines later. For the fast pot scan, BIT 2 of SKCTL at 53775 ($D20F) must be set.
(W) Audio channel one control. Each AUDF register has an associated control register which sets volume and distortion levels. The bit assignment is:
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Distortion Volume Volume (noise) only level 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lowest 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 etc. to: etc. to: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Highest (forced output)
The values for the distortion bits are as follows. The first process is to divide the clock value by the frequency, then mask the output using the polys in the order below. Finally, the result is divided by two.
Bit 7 6 5 0 0 0 five bit, then 17 bit, polys 0 0 1 five bit poly only 0 1 0 five bit, then four bit, polys 0 1 1 five bit poly only 1 0 0 17 bit poly only 1 0 1 no poly counters (pure tone) 1 1 0 four bit poly only 1 1 1 no poly counters (pure tone)
In general, the tones become more regular (a recognizable droning becomes apparent) with fewer and lower value polys masking the output. This is all the more obvious at low frequency ranges. POKE with 160 ($A0) or 224 ($E0) plus the volume for pure tones.
See De Re Atari and the Hardware Manual for details.
(R) Pot 1 register (625).
(W) Audio channel two frequency. Also used with AUDF3 to store the 19200 baud rate for SIO.
(R) Pot 2 (626).
(W) Audio channel two control.
(R) Pot 3 (627).
(W) Audio channel three frequency. Used with AUDF3 above and with AUDF4 to store the 600 baud rate for SIO.
(R) Pot 4 (628).
(W) Audio channel three control.
(R) Pot 5 (629).
(W) Audio channel four frequency.
(R) Pot 6 (630).
(W) Audio channel four control.
(R) Pot 7 (631).
(W) Audio control. To properly initialize the POKEY sound capabilities, POKE AUDCTL with zero and POKE 53775,3 ($D20F). These two are the equivalent of the BASIC statement SOUND 0,0,0,0. AUDCTL is the option byte which affects all sound channels. This bit assignment is:
Bit Description: 7 Makes the 17 bit poly counter into nine bit poly (see below) 6 Clock channel one with 1.79 MHz 5 Clock channel three with 1.79 MHz 4 Join channels two and one (16 bit) 3 Join channels four and three (16 bit) 2 Insert high pass filter into channel one, clocked by channel two 1 Insert high pass filter into channel two, clocked by channel four 0 Switch main clock base from 64 KHz to 15 KHz
Poly (polynomial) counters are used as a source of random pulses for noise generation. There are three polys: four, five and 17 bits long. The shorter polys create repeatable sound patterns, while the longer poly has no apparent repetition. Therefore, setting BIT 7 above, making the 17-bit into a nine-bit poly will make the pattern in the distortion more evident. You chose which poly(s) to use by setting the high three bits in the AUDC registers. The 17-bit poly is also used in the generation of random numbers; see 53770 ($D20A).
The clock bits allow the user to speed up or slow down the clock timers, respectively, making higher or lower frequency ranges possible. Setting the channels to the 1.79 MHz will produce a much higher sound, the 64 KHz clock will be lower, and the 15 KHz clock the lowest. The clock is also used when setting the frequency for the AUDF timers.
Two bits (three and four) allow the user to combine channels one and two or three and four for what amounts to a nine octave range instead of the usual five. Here’s an example from De Re Atari of this increased range, which uses two paddles to change the frequency: the right paddle makes coarse adjustments, the left paddle makes fine adjustments:
10 SOUND 0,0,0,0:POKE 53768,80:REM SET CLOCK AND JOIN CHANNELS 1 AND 2 20 POKE 53761,160:POKE 53763,168:REM TURN OFF CHANNEL 1 AND SET 2 TO PURE TONE GENERATION 50 POKE 53760,PADDLE(0):POKE 53762,PADDLE(1):GOTO 30
High pass filters allow only frequencies higher than the clock value to pass through. These are mostly used for special effects. Try:
10 SOUND 0,0,0,0:POKE 53768,4:REM HIGH PASS FILTER ON CHANNEL 1 20 POKE 53761,168:POKE 53765,168:REM PURE TONES 30 POKE 53760,254:POKE 53764,127 40 GOTO 40
See the excellent chapter on sound in De Re Atari: it is the best explanation of sound functions in the Atari available. See also the Hardware Manual for complete details.
(R) Eight line pot port state; reads all of the eight POTs together. Each bit represents a pot (paddle) of the same number. If a bit is set to zero, then the register value for that pot is valid (it’s in use); if it is one, then the value is not valid. ALLPOT is used with the POTGO command at 53771 ($D20B).
(W) Start the POKEY timers (the AUDF registers above). You POKE any non-zero value here to load and start the timers; the value isn’t itself used in the calculations. This resets all of the audio frequency dividers to their AUDF values. If enabled by IRQEN below, these AUDF registers generate timer interrupts when they count down from the number you POKEd there to zero. The vectors for the AUDF1, AUDF2 and AUDF4 timer interrupts are located between 528 and 533 ($210 and $215). POKEY timer four interrupt is only enabled in the new “B” OS ROMs.
(R) Holds the keyboard code which is then loaded into the shadow register (764; $2FC) when a key is hit. Usually read in response to the keyboard interrupt. Compares the value with that in CH1 at 754 ($2F2). If both values are the same, then the new code is accepted only if a suitable key debounce delay time has passed. The routines which test to see if the key code will be accepted start at 65470 ($FFBE). BIT 7 is the control key flag, BIT 6 is the shift key flag.
(W) Reset BITs 5 - 7 of the serial port status register at 53775 to one.
(R) When this location is read, it acts as a random number generator. It reads the high order eight bits of the 17 bit polynomial counter (nine bit if BIT 7 of AUDCTL is set) for the value of the number. You can use this location in a program to generate a random integer between zero and 255 by:
10 PRINT PEEK(53770)
This is a more elegant solution than INT(RND(0) * 256). For a test of the values in this register, use this simple program:
10 FOR N=1 TO 20:PRINT PEEK(53770):NEXT N
(W) Start the POT scan sequence. You must read your POT values first and then start the scan sequence, since POTGO resets the POT registers to zero. Written by the stage two VBLANK sequence.
(W) Serial port data output. Usually written to in the event of a serial data out interrupt. Writes to the eight bit (one byte) parallel holding register that is transferred to the serial shift register when a full byte of data has been transmitted. This “holding” register is used to contain the bits to be transmitted one at a time (serially) as a one-byte unit before transmission.
(R) Serial port input. Reads the one-byte parallel holding register that is loaded when a full byte of serial input data has been received. As above, this holding register is used to hold the bits as they are received one bit at a time until a full byte is received. This byte is then taken by the computer for processing. Also used to verify the checksum value at location 49 ($31).
The serial bus is the port on the Atari into which you plug your cassette or disk cable. For the pin values of this port, see the OS User’s Manual, p. 133, and the Hardware Manual.
(W) Interrupt request enable. Zero turns off all interrupt requests such as the BREAK key; to disable or re-enable interrupts, POKE with the values according to the following chart (setting a bit to one — i.e., true — enables that interrupt; decimal values are also shown for each bit):
Bit Decimal Interrupt Vector 0 1 Timer 1 (counted down to zero) VTIMR1 (528; $210) 1 2 Timer 2 (counted down to zero) VTIMR2 (530; $212) 2 4 Timer 4 (counted down to zero) VTIMR4 (532; $214), OS “B” ROMs only) 3 8 Serial output transmission done VSEROC (526; $20E) 4 16 Serial output data needed VSEROR (524; $20C) 5 32 Serial input data ready VSERIN (522; $20A) 6 64 Other key pressed VKEYBD (520; $208) 7 128 BREAK key pressed see below
Here is the procedure for the BREAK key interrupt: clear the interrupt register. Set BRKKEY (17; $11) to zero; clear the start/stop flag SSFLAG at 767 ($2FF); clear the cursor inhibit flag CRSINH at 752 ($2F0); clear the attract mode flag at 77 ($4D), and return from the interrupt after restoring the 6502 A register. (There is now (in the OS “B” ROMs) a proper vector for BREAK key interrupts at 566, 567 ($236, $237) which is initialized to point to 59220 ($E754).) If the interrupt was due to a serial I/O bus proceed line interrupt, then vector through VPRCED at 514 ($202). If due to a serial I/O bus interrupt line interrupt, then vector through VINTER at 516 ($204). If due to a 6502 BRK instruction, then vector through VBREAK at 518 ($206).
Timers relate to audio dividers of the same number (an interrupt is processed when the dividers count down to zero). These bits in IRQEN are not set on powerup and must be initiated by the user program before enabling the processor IRQ.
There are two other interrupts, processed by PIA, generated over the serial bus Proceed and Interrupt lines, set by the bits in the PACTL and PBCTL registers (54018 and 54019; $D302, $D303):
Bit Decimal Location Interrupt 0 1 PACTL Peripheral A (PORTA) interrupt enable bit. 7 128 PACTL Peripheral A interrupt status bit. 0 1 PBCTL Peripheral B (PORTB) interrupt enable bit. 7 128 PBCTL Peripheral B interrupt status bit.
The latter PORT interrupts are automatically disabled on powerup. Only the BREAK key and data key interrupts are enabled on powerup. The shadow register is 16 ($10).
(R) Interrupt request status. Bit functions are the same as IRQEN except that they register the interrupt request when it is zero rather than the enable when a bit equals one. IRQST is used to determine the cause of interrupt request with IRQEN, PACTL and PBCTL as above.
All IRQ interrupts are normally vectored through 65534 ($FFFE) to the IRQ service routine at 59123 ($E6F3), which determines the cause of the interrupt. The IRQ global RAM vector VIMIRQ at 534 ($216) ordinarily points to the IRQ processor at 59126 ($E6F6). The processor then examines 53774 ($D20E) and the PIA registers at 54018 and 54019 to determine the interrupt cause. Once determined, the routine vectors through one of the IRQ RAM vectors in locations 514 to 526 ($202 to $20E). For Non-Maskable Interrupts (NMI’s), see locations 54286 to 54287 ($D40E; $D40F). See the OS User’s Manual for complete details.
(W) Serial port control. Holds the value 255 ($255) if no key is pressed, 251 ($FB) for most other keys pressed, 247 ($F7) for SHIFT key pressed (*M). See the (R) mode below for an explanation of the bit functions. POKE with three to stop the occasional noise from cassette after I/O to bring POKEY out of the two-tone mode. (562).
(R) Reads the serial port status. It also returns values governed by a signal on the digital track of the cassette tape. You can generate certain values using the SOUND command in BASIC and a PEEK to SKSTAT:
SOUND 0,5,10,15 returns a value to here of 255 (or, on occasion, 127). SOUND 0,8,10,3 returns a value of 239.
This is handy for adding a voice track to Atari tapes. You use the left channel for your voice track and the right for the tone(s) you want to use as cuing marks. You can use the speaker on your TV to generate the tones by placing the right microphone directly in front of the speaker. The computer will register these tones in this register when it encounters them during a later cassette load. See COMPUTE!, July 1981, for some other suggestions on doing this. Remember, you can turn the cassette off by POKEing 54018 ($D302) with 60 ($3C) and back on with 52 ($34).
Bits in the SKCTL (W) register are normally zero and perform the functions below when set to one. The status when used as (R) is listed below the write (W) function:
Bit Function 0 (W) Enable keyboard debounce circuits. (R) Not used by SKSTAT. 1 (W) Enable keyboard scanning circuit. (R) Serial input shift register busy. 2 (W) Fast pot scan: the pot scan counter completes its sequence in two TV line times instead of one frame time (228 scan lines). Not as accurate as the normal pot scan, however. (R) the last key is still pressed. 3 (W) Serial output is transmitted as a two-tone signal rather than a logic true/false. POKEY two-tone mode. (R) The shift key is pressed. 4,5,6 (W) Serial port mode control used to set the bi-directional clock lines so that you can either receive external clock data or provide clock data to external devices (see the Hardware Manual, p. II.27). There are two pins on the serial port for Clock IN and Clock OUT data. See the OS User’s Manual, p. 133. 4 (R) Data can be read directly from the serial input port, ignoring the shift register. 5 (R) Keyboard over-run. Reset BITs 7 to 5 (latches) to one using SKRES at 53770 ($D20A). 6 (R) Serial data input over-run. Reset latches as above. 7 (W) Force break (serial output to zero). (R) Serial data input frame error caused by missing or extra bits. Beset latches as above.
BIT 2 is first set to zero to reset POT registers to zero (dumping the capacitors used to change the POT registers). Then BIT 2 is set to one to enable the fast scan. Fast scan is not as accurate as the normal scan routine. BIT 2 must be reset to zero to enable the normal scan mode; otherwise, the capacitors will never dump.
Locations 53776 to 54015 ($D210 to $D2FF) are duplications of locations 53760 to 53775 and have no particular use at present.
The Peripheral Interface Adapter (PIA) integrated circuit is a special microprocessor used to control the Atari ports, controller jacks one to four. Ports can be used for both input and output simultaneously or alternately. Barely tapped at the time of this writing, the ports represent a major resource for external (and internal) control and expansion. PIA also processes two of the IRQ interrupts: VINTER and VPRCED, vectored at locations 514 to 517 ($202 to $205). These interrupts are unused by the OS, but also may be used to provide greater control over external devices.
(W/R) Reads or writes data from controller jacks one and two if BIT 2 of PACTL (location 54018) is one. Writes to direction control if BIT 2 of PACTL is zero.
These two port registers also control the direction of data flow to the port, if the controller register (54018, below) is POKEd with 48 ($30). Then, if the bits in the register read zero, it is in input (R) mode; if they read one, it is in output (W) mode. A zero POKEd here makes all bits input, a 255 ($FF) makes all bits output. BITs 0 to 3 address pins one to four on jack one, BITs 4 to 7 address pins one to four on jack two. POKE 54018 with 52 to make this location into a data register again. Shadow registers are: STICK0 (632; $278, jack one), STICK1 (633; $279, jack two) and PTRIG0-3 (636-639; $27C-$27F).
Bits used as data register 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 ── Jack 0 ── ── Jack 1 ── ── Stick 1 ── ── Stick 0 ── Forward = BIT 0, 4 = 1 Backward = BIT 1, 5 = 1 Left = BIT 2,6 = 1 Right = BIT 3,7 = 1 Neutral = All four jack bits = 1
PORTA is also used to test if the paddle 0-3 triggers (PTRIG) have been pressed, using these bits:
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 PTRIG 3 2 - - 1 0 - -
Where zero in the appropriate bit equals trigger pressed, one equals trigger not pressed.
The PORT registers are also used in the keyboard controller (used with a keypad) operation where:
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Row 4 3 2 Top 4 3 2 Top Jack ..........2.......... ..........1...........
Columns for the keyboard operation are read through the POT (PADDL) and TRIG registers. See Micro, May 1982, and the Hardware Manual for more information on jacks and ports.
(W/R) Port B. Reads or writes data to and/or from jacks three and four. Same as PORTA, above, for the respective jacks. Shadow registers are: STICK2 (634; $27A, jack three), STICK3 (635, $27B, jack four), and PTRIG4-7 (640-643; $280-$283).
(W/R) Port A controller (see 54016 above). POKE with 60 ($3C) to turn the cassette motor off, POKE with 52 to turn it on. You can put a music cassette in your program recorder, press PLAY and then POKE 54018,52. Your music will play through the TV speaker or external amplifier while you work at the Atari. You can use this technique to add voice tracks to your programs. To turn off the music or voice, type POKE 54018,60.
PACTL can be used for other external applications by the user. Bit use is as follows:
Bit Function 7 (read only) Peripheral A interrupt (IRQ) status bit. Set by Peripheral (PORT) A. Reset by reading PORTA (53774; $D20E). 6 Set to zero. 5 Set to one. 4 Set to one. 3 (write) Peripheral motor control line (turn the cassette on or off; zero equals on). 2 (write) Controls PORTA addressing. One equals PORTA register; zero equals direction control register. 1 Set to zero. 0 (write) Peripheral A interrupt (IRQ) enable. One equals enable. Set by the OS but available to the user; reset on powerup.
(W/R) Port B controller. Initialized to 60 ($3C) by the OS IRQ code. PBCTL is the same as PACTL, above, with the following exception (this may actually perform the same function as in PACTL, but I am not sure of the distinction between descriptions):
Bit Function 3 Peripheral command identification (serial bus command), initialized to 60 ($3C).
Ports can be used for external control applications by the technically minded reader who is willing to do some soldering to develop cables and connectors. A good example can be found in COMPUTE!, February 1981, where the author gives directions for using jacks three and four as a printer port. The Macrotronic printer cables use just this method, bypassing the 830 interface entirely (one way of reducing your hardware costs). Theoretically, the entire Atari can be controlled through the ports!
Locations 54020 to 54271 ($D304 to $D3FF) are repeats of locations 54016 to 54019 ($D300 to $D303).
ANTIC is a special, separate microprocessor used in your Atari to control C/GTIA, the screen display, and other screen-related functions including processing the NMI interrupts. It uses its own instruction set, called the display list, which tells ANTIC where to find the screen data in RAM and how to display it. ANTIC also uses an internal four bit counter called the Delta Counter (DCTR) to control the vertical dimension of each block.
(W) Direct Memory Access (DMA) control. It is also used to define one- or two-line resolution for players and to turn on players and missiles. Values are POKEd into the shadow register, 559 ($22F), and are also described there. You POKE the shadow register with the following numbers in order to:
Turn off the playfield 0 Use narrow playfield 1 Use normal playfield 2 Use wide playfield 3 Enable missile DMA 4 Enable player DMA 8 Enable both player and missile DMA 12 Single line player resolution 16 Enable DMA Fetch instructions 32
Double line resolution is the default status. Use this register in conjunction with GRACTL at 53277 ($D01D). Both must be set properly or no display will result. BIT 5 enables DMA to fetch the display list instructions. If BIT 5 is not set (BIT 5 equals zero), ANTIC will not work. DMACTL is initialized to 34 ($22). A player in single line resolution might look like this:
00011000 ## 00111100 #### 01111110 ###### 11111111 ######## 11111111 ######## 01111110 ###### 00111100 #### 00011000 ##
so that each byte is displayed on one TV line. The same player in double line resolution would look like this:
00011000 ## 00011000 ## 00111100 #### 00111100 #### 01111110 ###### 01111110 ###### 11111111 ######## 11111111 ######## 11111111 ######## 11111111 ######## 01111110 ###### 01111110 ###### 00111100 #### 00111100 #### 00011000 ## 00011000 ##
where every byte is displayed over two TV lines.
(W) Character mode control. See shadow register 755 for values that can be POKEd in. Only the least three bits (decimal zero to seven) are read, as below:
Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Cursor Transparent X X X X Opaque X X X X Present X X X X Absent X X X X ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── Characters Normal X X X X Inverted X X X X
Display list pointer. Tells the OS the address of the display list instructions about what screen mode(s) to display and where to find the screen data. See SDLIST (560, 561; $230, $231).
(W) Horizontal scroll enable, POKE HSCROL with from zero to 16 clock cycles for the number of cycles to scroll. Horizontal fine scrolls can be used only if BIT 4 of the display list instruction is set. The difficulty in horizontal scrolling lies in arranging the screen data to be scrolled in such a manner as to prevent wraparound (i.e., the bit or byte scrolled off screen in one line becomes the bit or byte scrolled on screen in an adjacent line). Normal data arranged for TV display looks like this on the screen:
┌──────────┐ │..........│ │..........│ │..........│ │..........│ │..........│ │..........│ └──────────┘
where it is a one-dimensional memory area “folded” at the proper places to create the image of a two dimensional screen. This is done by the DL character or map mode instruction. Without other instructions, it reads the memory continuously from the first specified location, each line taking the correct number of bytes for the GRAPHICS mode specified. To properly scroll it horizontally, you must arrange it in relation to the TV screen like this:
┌──────────┐ .....│..........│..... .....│..........│..... .....│..........│..... .....│..........│..... .....│..........│..... .....│..........│..... └──────────┘
Now you will have to make each display instruction for each line into a Load Memory Scan (LMS) instruction. To direct each LMS to the proper screen RAM for that line, you will have to increment each memory location by the total length of the line. For example, if you want to scroll a 256-byte horizontal screen, each LMS instruction will have to point to a location in memory 256 bytes above the last one. Of course, you will have to implement error-trapping routines so that your screen does not extend beyond your desired boundaries.
Coarse scrolling, one byte at a time, can be done without setting the HSCROL register by the method described above. For smooth scrolling, you will have to use this register. See De Re Atari.
(W) Vertical scroll enable, POKE VSCROL with from zero to 16 scan lines, depending on the GRAPHICS mode of the screen for the number of scan lines to scroll. Vertical fine scrolls can be used only if BIT 5 of the display list instruction has been set.
Coarse scrolling can be done without using this register, simply by moving the top of the screen address (as defined by the DL LMS instruction) up or down one mode line (plus or minus 40 or 20 bytes, depending on the GRAPHICS mode). The top of the screen address can be found by:
10 DLIST=PEEK(560)+PEEK(561)*256 20 SCRNLO=DLIST+4:SCRNHI=DLIST+5:REM LSB/MSB OF SCREEN ADDRESS 25 PRINT "SCREEN ADDRESS = ";PEEK(SCRNLO)+PEEK(SCRNHI)*256
You could then add a routine to this for a coarse - scroll vertically through the memory with a joystick, such as:
30 LOBYTE=0:HIBYTE=0 40 IF STICK(0)=14 THEN LOBYTE=LOBYTE+40:GOTO 100 50 IF STICK(0)=13 THEN LOBYTE=LOBYTE-40 60 IF LOBYTE<0 THEN LOBYTE=LOBYTE+256:HIBYTE=HIBYTE-1 70 IF HIBYTE<0 THEN HIBYTE=0 80 GOTO 200 100 IF LOBYTE>255 THEN LOBYTE=LOBYTE-256 110 HIBYTE=HIBYTE+1 200 POKE SCRNLOW,LOBYTE:POKE SCRNHI,HIBYTE 210 GOTO 40
Coarse scrolling is relatively easy to implement in the Atari: one basically alters the screen RAM to display the new material. Fine scrolling is more difficult: each scroll register must be POKEd with the number of units to be scrolled — color clocks or scan lines — and the corresponding display list instructions must have the proper bits set. This means you can selectively fine scroll any mode lines you wish by setting only those bits of the lines you intend to scroll. Other lines will be displayed normally. You can set a DL instruction for both horizontal and vertical scroll enable. See the Hardware Manual for a discussion of the problems in fine scrolling.
Fine scrolling will allow only a certain amount of data to be scrolled before the register must be reset (16 clock bits or scan lines maximum). In order to make the scrolling activity continuous, the register involved must be reset to zero when the desired value is reached, a coarse scroll must be implemented (usually during a DLI or VBLANK interval) and a new fine scroll begun. This is not easily done in BASIC since it is too slow, and changing registers during ANTIC’s display process usually causes rough or jerky motion. Assembly routines are suggested for smooth display. See De Re Atari, Micro, November 1981, BYTE, January 1982, and Santa Cruz’s Tricky Tutorial #2 for more information.
(W) MSB of the player/missile base address used to locate the graphics for your players and missiles (the address equals PMBASE * 256). P/M graphics are tricky to use since there are no direct Atari 8K BASIC commands to either create or move them (there are, however, commands for P/M graphics in BASIC A+ and in valFORTH utilities).
Your P/M graphics must always begin on a 1K boundary (PEEK(RAMTOP)-4 for double line resolution players) or 2K boundary (PEEK(RAMTOP)-5 for single line resolution), so the LSB is always zero (page numbers always end in $XX00). For example:
10 POKE 106,PEEK(106)-8:GRAPHICS 8:SETCOLOR 2,3,4 20 POKE 559,62:POKE 53248,100:POKE 704,160:POKE 53256,2 30 MEM=PEEK(106)-8 40 POKE 54279,MEM:POKE 53277,3:START=MEM*256+1024 50 FOR LOOP=100 TO 119:READ BYTE:POKE START+LOOP,BYTE:NEXT LOOP 60 DATA 16,16,56,40,40,56,40,40,40 70 DATA 124,84,124,84,254,146,254,170,170,68 100 END
You can change the color, width, resolution, and horizontal position of the player in the example by altering the registers used above.
Each player is one byte (eight bits) wide. Single line resolution P/M characters (POKE 559,62) can be up to 256 bytes high. Double line resolution P/M characters (POKE 559,46) can be up to 128 bytes high. In either case, they can map to the height of the screen. Missiles have the same height, but are only two bits wide each. Four missiles can be combined into a fifth player by setting BIT 4 of location 623 ($26F). You need not fill the entire height of a P/M character, but you should POKE unused bytes with zero to eliminate any screen garbage. You can do this by:
FOR N=PMBASE+1024 TO PMBASE+2048:POKE N,0:NEXT N
where PMBASE is the starting address of the reserve memory area. In double line resolution, change the loop value to N = PMBASE + 512 TO PMBASE + 1024. Here’s a short machine language routine to do the same thing. You would put the start address of the area to be loaded with zero and the number of bytes to be cleared in with the USR call as the first two parameters. In this example, I have arbitrarily chosen 38012 and 2048 for these values.
10 START=38012:BYTE=2048:DIM PGM$(42) 20 FOR LOOP=1 TO 42:READ ML:PGM$(LOOP,LOOP)=CHR$(ML):NEXT LOOP 30 DATA 104,104,133,204,104,133,203,104,133,206,104 40 DATA 133,205,166,206,160,0,169,0,145,203,136 50 DATA 208,251,230,204,202,48,6,208,244,164 60 DATA 205,208,240,198,204,160,0,145,203,96 70 A=USR(ADR(PGM$),START,BYTE)
You can use this routine to clear out memory anywhere in the Atari. You can also use it to load any one value into memory by changing the second zero (after the 169) in line 40 to the value desired.
Locating your graphics tables at the high end of memory may cause addressing problems for playfield graphics, or may leave some of the display unusable and cause PLOT to malfunction. If you locate your tables just before the screen display, it may be erased if you change graphics modes. You can look at your highest RAM use graphics statement and plan accordingly. To calculate a safe starting address below the display list, try:
where SIZE is 2048 for single line resolution, 1024 for double line.
Once you have the starting address, determine the ending address of your table by adding the correct number of bytes for the size (same as the SIZE variable above), and POKE this number (LSB/MSB) into APPMHI at locations 14 and 15 ($E, $F). This sets the lower limit for playfield graphics memory use. If you change graphics modes in the program now, it should leave your player tables intact. For example, if the DL is at 39968, the PMBASE will equal 36864 in the equation above. Add 2048 (single line resolution) to get 38912. This is $9800. In decimal, the LSB is zero and the MSB is 152. POKE these values into APPMHI. This sets the lowest limit to which the screen and DL data may descend.
The unused portion of the RAM set aside for P/M use, or any RAM reserved for players, but not used, may be used for other purposes in your program such as machine language routines. See the appendix for a map of P/M memory use. The register stores the address as below:
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 One line resolution: ......MSB....... ...unused... Two line resolution: ........MSB......... unused..
There are some restrictions on locating your P/M data above the display list. If not positioned far enough above your screen data, you may end up with both the normal and screen data being displayed at once, resulting in garbage on the screen. A display list may not cross a 1K boundary without a jump instruction, and the screen display RAM cannot cross a 4K boundary without an LMS instruction to point to the proper byte(s). Due to problems that arise when moving the GR.7 and GR.8 screens and data less than 4K, you should never reserve less than 16 pages above RAMTOP in these modes. If you are reserving more, add the pages in blocks of 4K (16 pages).
See COMPUTE!, September 1981, for a discussion of the problems of positioning P/M graphics in memory, and using P/M graphics for animation.
See De Re Atari, COMPUTE!, June 1982, and Creative Computing, April 1982, for a discussion of using string manipulation with P/M graphics. See Your Atari 400/800 for a general discussion of P/M graphics. Most of the popular magazines have also carried articles on simplifying P/M graphics.
(W) Character base address; the location of the start of the character set, either the standard Atari set or a user-designed set. The default is 224 ($E0), which points to the start of the Atari ROM character set. Iridis, a short-lived disk -and- documentation magazine, produced a good utility called FontEdit to aid in the design of altered character sets. Online Systems’ program The Next Step is also very useful for this purpose, as is COMPUTE!’s “SuperFont,” January 1982. Uses shadow register 756 ($2F4).
Normally, this points to location 57344 or 57856 ($E000 or $E200) depending on your choice of characters used in which text mode. GRAPHICS mode zero uses the entire 128-character set; GR.1 and GR.2 use only half the set (64 characters). You POKE a different number into the shadow register at 756 ($2F4) to point to your own character set in RAM. This must be an even number that points to a page in memory that is evenly divisible by two. In GR.1 and GR.2 this number is 224 (pointing to $E000), giving you uppercase, punctuation and numbers. POKEing the shadow or this location (in machine language) with 226 will give you lowercase and control characters.
See the information about the ROM character set at 57344 ($E000).
(W) Wait for horizontal synchronization. Allows the OS to synchronize the vertical TV display by causing the 6502 to halt and restart seven machine cycles before the beginning of the next TV line. It is used to synchronize the VBI’s or DLI’s with the screen display. To see the effect of the WSYNC register, type in the second example of a Display List Interrupt at location 512. RUN it and observe that it causes a clean separation of the colors at the change boundary. Now change line 50 to:
50 DATA 72,169,222,234,234,234,141,24,208,104,64
This eliminates the WSYNC command. RUN it and see the difference in the boundary line.
The keyboard handler sets WSYNC repeatedly while generating the keyboard click on the console speaker at 53279 ($D01F). When interrupts are generated during the WSYNC period, they get delayed by one scan line. To bypass this, examine the VCOUNT register below and delay the interrupt processing by one line when no WSYNC delay has occurred.
(R) Vertical line counter. Used to keep track of which line is currently being generated on the screen. Used during Display List Interrupts to change color or graphics modes. PEEKing here returns the line count divided by two, ranging from zero to 130 ($82; zero to 155 on the PAL system; see 53268; $D014) for the 262 lines per TV frame.
(R) Light pen horizontal position (564). Holds the horizontal color clock count when the pen trigger is pressed.
(R) Light pen vertical position (565). Holds the VCOUNT value (above) when the pen trigger is pressed. See the Hardware Manual, p. II-32, for a description of light pen operation.
(W) Non-maskable interrupt (NMI) enable. POKE with 192 to enable the Display List Interrupts. When BIT 7 is set to one, it means DL instruction interrupt; any display list instruction where BIT 7 equals one will cause this interrupt to be enabled at the start of the last video line displayed by that instruction. When BIT 6 equals one, it allows the Vertical Blank Interrupt and when BIT 5 equals one, it allows the RESET button interrupt. The RESET interrupt is never disabled by the OS. You should never press RESET during powerup since it will be acted upon.
NMIEN is set to 64 ($40) by the OS IRQ code on powerup, enabling VBI’s, but disabling DLI’s. All NMI interrupts are vectored through 65530 ($FFFA) to the NMI service routine at 59316 ($E7B4) to determine their cause.
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Interrupt: DLI VBI RESET .... unused .....
(W) Reset for NMIST (below); clears the interrupt request register; resets all of the NMI status together.
(R) NMI status; holds cause for the NMI interrupt in BITs 5, 6 and 7; corresponding to the same bits in NMIEN above. If a DLI is pending, a jump is made through the global RAM vector VDSLST (512; $200). The OS doesn’t use DLI’s, so 512 is initialized to point to an RTI instruction and must be changed by the user before a DLI is allowed.
If the interrupt is not a DLI, then a test is made to see if the interrupt was caused by pressing RESET key and, if so, a jump is made to 58484 ($E474). If not a RESET interrupt, then the system assumes the interrupt was a VBLANK interrupt, and a jump is made through VVBLKI at 546 ($222), which normally points to the stage one VBLANK processor. From there it checks the flag at CRITIC (66; $42) and, if not from a critical section, jumps through VVBLKD at 548 ($224), which normally points to the VBLANK exit routine. On powerup, the VBLANK interrupts are enabled while the display list interrupts are disabled. See the end of the memory map for a description of the VBLANK procedures. For IRQ interrupts, see location 53744 ($D20E).
Locations 54288 to 54303 ($D410 to $D41F) are repeats of locations 54272 to 54287 ($D400 to $D40F).
Locations 54784 to 55295 ($D600 to $D7FF) are unused but not empty nor user alterable. See the note at 53504 ($D100).
Locations 55296 to 65535 ($D800 to $FFFF) are the OS ROM. These locations are contained in the 10K ROM cartridge, which sits in the front slot of the Atari 800 or inside the Atari 400. The OS is identical for both computers.
The locations given here are for the “A” version of the OS ROMs. There are changes in the new “B” version ROMs, which are explained in the appendix. Most of the changes affect the interrupt handler routines and SIO. In making these changes, Atari cured some bugs such as the device time-out problem. Unfortunately, there is a cloud with this silver lining: not all of your old software will run with the new ROMs. Megalegs, one of my favorite games, cannot run under the new ROMs. A pity that. There are others; I’m sure you’ll find them. The solution is to have both sets of ROMs so you can use all of your software.
Locations 55296 to 57343 ($D800 to $DFFF) are reserved for the ROM’s Floating Point Mathematics Package. There are other areas used by the FP package: page zero (locations 212 to 254; $D4 to $FE) and page five (locations 1406 to 1535; $57E to $5FF), which are used only if FP routines are called. There are also trigonometric functions in the BASIC cartridge located between 48549 and 49145 ($BDA5 to $BFF9) which use the FP routines. See De Re Atari for more information.
These are the entry points to some of the subroutines; unless otherwise noted, they use FP register zero (FR0 at 212 to 217, $D4 to $DB):
ASCII to Floating Point (FP) conversion.
FP value to ASCII conversion.
Integer to FP conversion.
FP to integer conversion.
Clear FR0 at 212 to 217 ($D4-$DB) by setting all bytes to zero.
Clear the FP number from FR1, locations 224 to 229 ($E0 to $E5), by setting all bytes to zero. Also called AF1 by De Re Atari.
FP subtract routine, the value in FR0 minus the value in FR1.
FP addition routine; FR0 plus FR1.
FP multiplication routine; FR0 times FR1.
FP division routine; FR0 divided by FR1.
FP polynomial evaluation.
Load the FP number into FR0 from the 6502 X,Y registers.
Load the FP number into FR0 from user routine, using FLPTR at 252 ($FC).
Load the FP number into FR1 from the 6502 X,Y registers.
Load the FP number into FR1 from user program, using FLPTR.
Store the FP number into the 6502 X,Y registers from FR0.
Store the FP number from FR0, using FLPTR.
Move the FP number from FR0 to FR1.
FP base e exponentiation.
FP base 10 exponentiation.
FP natural logarithm.
FP base 10 logarithm.
Locations 57344 to 58367 ($E000 to $E3FF) hold the standard Atari character set: at $E000 the special characters, punctuation and numbers begin; at $E100 (57600) the capital letters begin; at $E200 (57856) the special graphics begin, and at $E300 (58112) the lowercase letters begin.
There are 1024 bytes here ($400), with each character requiring eight bytes, for a total of 128 characters (inverse characters simply manipulate the information here to reverse the bits by performing an OR with 128 — the value in location 694 ($2B6) when the Atari logo key is toggled — on the bits. To return to the normal ATASCII display, the inverse characters are EORed with 128). The first half of the memory is for numerals, punctuation, and uppercase characters; the second half ($E200 to $E3FF) is for lowercase and control characters. When you POKE 756 ($2F4) with 224 ($E0), you are POKEing it with the MSB of this address ($E000). When you POKE it with 226 ($E2), you are moving the address pointer to the second half of the character set. In GR.0, you have the entire character set to use. In GR.1 and GR.2, you can use only one half of the set at a time. You can’t POKE it with 225 because the number POKEd must be evenly divisible by two.
The characters stored here aren’t in ATASCII order; they have their own internal order for storage. The order of the characters is listed on page 55 of your BASIC Reference Manual.
Here’s an example of how a letter (A) is stored in ROM. Each line represents a byte. The decimal values are those you’d find if you PEEKed the eight locations where “A” is stored (starting at 57608; $E108):
Bit 76543210 Decimal ┌────────┐ 00000000 0 │ │ 00011000 24 │ ## │ 00111100 60 │ #### │ 01100110 102 │ ## ## │ 01100110 102 │ ## ## │ 01111110 126 │ ###### │ 01100110 102 │ ## ## │ 00000000 0 │ │ └────────┘
When you create your own character sets (or alter the Atari set when you move it to RAM — see location 756; $2F4 for a routine to do this), you do a “bit-map” for each character as in the example above. It could as easily be a spaceship, a Hebrew letter, an APL character, or a face. Chris Crawford’s game Eastern Front 1941 (APX) shows excellent use of an altered character set to create his large map of Russia, plus the symbols for the armies.
Here’s an example of using the bit-mapping of the character set to provide text in GRAPHICS 8:1 GRAPHICS 8 5 DLIST=PEEK(560)+PEEK(561)*256 6 LOBYTE=DLIST+4:HIBYTE=DLIST+5 7 REAL=PEEK(LOBYTE)+PEEK(HIBYTE)*256:SCREEN=REAL:TV=SCREEN 10 CHBASE=57344 20 DIM A$(128),BYTE(128),WANT(128) 27 PRINT "INPUT A 40 CHARACTER STRING:" 30 INPUT A$ 35 TIME=TIME+1 40 FOR LOOK=1 TO LEN(A$) 50 BYTE(LOOK)=ASC(A$(LOOK,LOOK)) 51 IF BYTE(LOOK)>127 THEN BYTE(LOOK)=BYTE(LOOK)-128 52 IF BYTE(LOOK)<32 THEN BYTE(LOOK)=BYTE(LOOK)+64:GOTO 55 53 IF BYTE(LOOK)<97 THEN BYTE(LOOK)=BYTE(LOOK)-32 55 NEXT LOOK 59 FOR EXTRA=0 TO 7 60 FOR LOOK=1 TO LEN(A$) 70 WANT(LOOK)=PEEK(CHBASE+EXTRA+BYTE(LOOK)*8) 80 POKE TV + EXTRA,WANT(LOOK):TV=TV+1 82 NEXT LOOK 85 SCREEN=SCREEN+39:TV=SCREEN 90 NEXT EXTRA 100 SCREEN=REAL+TIME*320 110 IF SCREEN>REAL+6080 THEN TIME=0:GOTO 100 120 GOTO 30
This program simply takes the bytes which represent the letters you input as A$ and finds their places in the ROM character set. It then proceeds to POKE the bytes into the screen RAM, using a FOR-NEXT loop.
To convert ATASCII codes to the internal codes, use this table:ATASCII value Operation for internal code 0 — 31 add 64 32 — 95 subtract 32 96 — 127 remains the same 128 — 159 add 64 160 — 223 subtract 32 224 — 255 remains the same
See COMPUTE!, November 1981, for the program “TextPlot” which displays text in different sizes in GRAPHICS modes three to eight, and January 1982 for a program to edit character sets, “SuperFont.”
Locations 58368 to 58447 ($E400 to $E44F) are the vector tables, stored as LSB, MSB. These base addresses are used by resident handlers. Handler vectors use the following format:
The device tables in location 794 ($31A) point to the particular vector(s) used in each appropriate table. In each case, the 6502 X register is used to point to the originating IOCB.
Screen Editor (E:) entry point table.
If you PEEK here and get back 56, then you have the older “A” version of the OS ROMs. If you get back zero, then you have the newer “B” version that was released in January 1982. The “B” version fixes some minor bugs, including the device time-out problems, enables POKEY timer four, and provides a vector for BREAK key interrupts. See Appendix 4.
Display handler (television screen) (S:).
Keyboard handler (K:).
Printer handler (P:).
Cassette handler (C:).
Locations 58448 to 58533 ($E450 to $E4A5) are more vectors: those to location 58495 ($E47F) are Jump vectors, those from 58496 to 58533 ($E480 to $E4A5) are the initial RAM vectors.
Disk handler initialization vector, initialized to 60906 ($EDEA).
Disk handler (interface) entry; checks the disk status. Initialized to 60912 ($EDF0).
Central Input/Output (CIO) utility entry. CIO handles all of the I/O operations or data transfers. Information placed in the IOCB’s tells CIO what operations are necessary. CIO passes this information to the correct device driver routine and then passes control to the Device Control Block (DCB). This in turn calls up SIO (below) to control the actual peripheral(s). CIO treats all I/O in the same manner: device independent. The differentiation between operations is done by the actual device drivers.
You jump to here to use the IOCB handler routines in ROM. BASIC supports only record I/O or one-byte-at-a-time I/O (GET and PUT). Addressing CIOV directly will allow the user to input or output a buffer of characters at a time, such as loading a machine language program directly into memory from a disk file. This is considerably faster than using BASIC functions such as GET. Here is a typical machine language subroutine to do this:
PLA, PLA, PLA, TAX, JMP $E456 (104,104,104,170,76,86,228) ($68,$68,$68,$AA,$4C,$56,$E4)
This gets the IOCB number into the 6502 X register and the return address on the stack. CIOV expects to find the IOCB number 16 in the 6502 X register (i.e., IOCB zero is zero, IOCB one is 16; $10, IOCB two is 32, $20, etc.). $E456 is the CIO initialization entry point (this address).
To use CIOV in a program, first you must have OPENed a channel for the appropriate actions, POKEd the correct IOCB (locations 848 to 959; $350 to $3BF) with the correct values, and established a location in which to load your file (IOCB address plus four and plus five). One use is calling up a high-res picture from a disk and storing it in the screen memory (locations 88, 89; $58, $59). You can POKE the appropriate decimal values into memory and call it with a USR call, or make it into a string (START$ = "hhh*LVd" where the * and the d are both inverse characters) and call it by:
JUMP = USR(ADR(START$))
This method is used to start the concurrent mode in the RS-232 of the 850 interface in the 850 Interface Manual. See location 88, 89 ($58, $59) for another example of the machine language routine technique. Still another use of this method can be found in De Re Atari. Initialized to 58564 ($E4C4).
Serial Input/Output (SIO) utility entry point. SIO drives the serial bus and the peripherals. When a request is placed in the Device Control Block (DCB) by a device handler, SIO takes control and uses the data in the DCB to perform the operation required. SIO takes care of the transfer of data as defined by the DCB. CIO (above) is responsible for the “packaging” of the data and transfers control to SIO when necessary. See the DCB locations 768 to 779 ($300-$30B).
SIO first sends a command frame to the device, consisting of five bytes: the device ID, the command BYTE, two auxiliary bytes for device-specific information, then a checksum (which is the sum of the first four bytes). If the device acknowledges this frame, it is followed, if necessary, by the data frame of a fixed number of bytes depending on the device record size, plus a checksum byte. Initialized to 59737 ($E959).
Set system timers during the VBLANK routine. Uses the 6502 X register for the MSB of vector/times, Y for the LSB and A for the number of the vector to hack (change). SETVBV insures that both bytes of the vector addressed will be updated while VBLANK is enabled. You can JSR here when creating your own timer routines. See COMPUTE!, November 1981, for an application. Initialized to 59666 ($E912) old ROMs, 59629 ($E8ED) new ROMs.
Stage one VBLANK calculations entry. It performs the processing of a VBLANK interrupt. Contains JMP instruction for the vector in the next two addresses (58464, 58465; $E460, $E461). This is the address normally found in VVBLKI (546, 547; $222, $223). It is initialized to 59345 ($E7D1), which is the VBLANK routine entry. Initialized to 59345 ($E7D1) old ROMs, 59310 ($E7AE) new ROMs.
Exit from the VBLANK routine, entry point. Contains JMP to the address stored in next two locations (58467, 58468; $E463, $E464). This is the address normally found in VVBLKD (548, 549; $224, $225). Initialized to 59710 ($E93E), which is the VBLANK exit routine. It is used to restore the computer to its pre-interrupt state and to resume normal processing. Initialized to 59710 ($E93E) old ROMs, 59653 ($E905) new ROMs.
SIO utility initialization, OS use only.
Send enable routine, OS use only.
Interrupt handler initialization, OS use only.
CIO utility initialization, OS use only.
Blackboard mode entry. Blackboard mode is the “ATARI MEMO PAD” mode. It can be reached from BASIC by typing “BYE”, “B.” or by powering up with no peripherals or cartridges. Nothing you write to the screen in blackboard mode is acted upon by the computer. You can enter this mode to protect your programs temporarily from prying and curious fingers.
All of the screen editing commands continue to work in blackboard mode. You can enter blackboard mode from any graphics mode with a text window; the display screen will remain intact on the screen while the text window will be in blackboard mode. Pressing RESET will, of course, return the entire screen to GR.0. You can also enter blackboard mode from a program, but cannot get out of it in BASIC once you are in it.
If you entered blackboard mode from BASIC, you can return to it by pressing RESET. Any BASIC program will still be there. So will any RS-232 or DOS handlers previously booted. Initialized to 61987 ($F223).
Warmstart entry point (RESET button vector). Initializes the OS RAM region. The RESET key produces an NMI interrupt and a chip reset (see below). Jump to here on an NMI caused by pressing the RESET key. Initialized to 61723 ($F11B).
Coldstart (powerup) entry point. Initializes the OS and user RAM regions; wipes out any program in memory. Initialized to 61733 ($F125).
Cassette read block routine entry, OS use only.
Cassette OPEN for input vector, OS use only.
RAM vector initial value table.
The following are the addresses for the handler routines:
Addresses for the Central Input/Output routines (CIO):
is the CIO initialization routine called by the monitor on powerup.
move the user IOCB to the ZIOCB.
check for a valid command.
OPEN command routines.
CLOSE command routines.
STATUS and special command routines.
process the CIO commands for read and write, including buffer check for full or empty.
routine to return to the user from CIO.
routines to compute the device handler entry point, jump to the handler, transfer control, and then return to CIO after the operation.
Addresses for the interrupt handler routines:
IRQ interrupt service routines start here.
the immediate IRQ vector to the IRQ handler. The global NMI and IRQ RAM vectors in locations 512 to 527 ($200 to $20F) are all initialized to this area (59142, $E706 for the new OS ROMs).
the vector for the IRQ interrupts on powerup; it points to a PLA and RTI instruction sequence (new OS ROMs; 59219; $E78F).
the NMI handler, tests for the reason for the NMI, then jumps through the appropriate RAM vector. Also called the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR).
the VBLANK routines start here, including frame counter, update timer, update hardware registers from shadow registers, update the attract mode counter and the realtime clock. The vertical blank immediate vector, VVBLKI, normally pointed to by locations 546, 547 ($222, $223), points to here. The Updated OS ROMs point to 59310 ($E7AE).
subroutines to set the VBLANK timers and vectors.
The vertical blank deferred interrupt, normally vectored from locations 548, 549 ($224, $225), points to 59710 ($E93E). In the Updated OS ROMs, it points to 59653 ($E905). In both cases they point to the VBLANK exit routine.
See page 104 of the OS User’s Manual for a list of the vectors and MICRO, January 1982, for an explanation of the VBLANK process.
Routines for the Serial Input/Output (SIO) routines:
is the SIO send buffer routine entry.
is the serial output ready IRQ vector.
is the serial output complete IRQ vector. This is at 60111 ($EACF) in the new OS ROMs.
is the serial input ready IRQ vector. This is 60175 ($EB0F) in the new OS ROMs.
is the start of the cassette handling code SIO subroutine to set baud rate, tone values, inter-record gap, to load the buffer from the cassette and to turn on the recorder motor. Write routines are located in 61249 to 61666 ($EFF5 to $F0E2).
is the start of the disable POKEY interrupts routine entry, which also disables the send and receive functions.
is the subroutine to calculate baud rate using the POKEY frequency registers and the VCOUNT timer. The tables for the AUDF and VCOUNT values are between 60882 and 60905 ($EDD2 and $EDE9).
Routines for the disk handler. Initialization is at DINIT, 60906 ($EDEA), entry is at DSKIF, 60912 ($EDF0).
Routines for the printer handler.
Routines for the cassette handler.
The buzz used in the cassette CLOAD command can be called up from BASIC by:
BUZZ = USR(61530).
You can turn it off with the RESET key. While this isn’t terribly exciting, it points to the potential of using the console speaker for sound instead of merely for beeps (the RAM location for the speaker is at 53279; $D01F). See the speaker location and COMPUTE!, August 1981, for a short routine to use the speaker for sound effects.
Routines for the monitor handler. This is also the address area of PWRUP, the powerup module (61733; $F125). Coldstart routines are initialized to this location. The routine to check for cartridge installation begins at 61845 ($F195). Hardware initialization begins at 62081 ($F281).
the RESET button routine starts here.
the start of the hardware initialization routines.
the start of the OS RAM initialization and setup routines.
the entry point for the disk boot routine.
the disk boot routine activation.
the entry point for the reinitialization of disk software.
Routines for the display and keyboard handler. The display handler begins at 62454 ($F3F6) and the keyboard handler begins at 63197 ($F6DD), below.
Like the BASIC INPUT command, EGETCH gets a line from the screen and keyboard, but only one character at a time. You must do a JSR $F63E for each character input. This is also the address of the beginning of the screen editor routines.
This routine puts the character currently in the accumulator onto the screen in the next print location. Similar to the BASIC PUT command.
Beginning of the keyboard handler.
This routine waits for a key to be pressed and returns its value to the accumulator (6502 register A). Similar to the BASIC GET command.
The screen scroll routine starts here.
Screen draw routines begin here, end at 65092 ($FE44). See Creative Computing, March 1982, for an example of a modification to the draw routines to avoid the “out-of-bounds” error for use in GR.7+.
The ROM tables for display lists, ANTIC codes, control codes, and ATASCII conversion codes.
Subroutines to test the acceptance of the last key pressed and to process the debounce delay routines start here.
When a key is pressed, it initiates an IRQ through VKEYBD at locations 520, 521 ($208, $209) to 65470 ($FFBE). This is the keyboard service routine. It processes debounce, and SHIFT-CTRL logic (see location 559; $22F); saves the internal keyboard code in 754 ($2F2) and 764 ($2FC); sets the ATTRACT mode flag at 77 ($4D) and sets location 555 ($22B — SRTIMR) to 48 ($30).
According to Softside Magazine, December 1981, if a PEEK here returns 255, then you have the older OS ROM(s). There were some troubles with cassette loads in the older ROMs that sometimes require the following to cure:
Do an LPRINT without a printer attached before CLOAD. This clears the cassette buffer.
Press RESET before CSAVEing or CLOADing will restore the system to its initialization parameters and help with loading and saving routines.
There is a new OS available from Atari which fixes a bug that would cause the I/O operations to “time out” for a few seconds. It apparently does not alter any of the routines mentioned here.
The chip reset interrupt (powerup) vectors through location 65532 ($FFFC) to 58487 ($E477) where a JMP vector to the powerup routine is located. A chip reset is not the same as pressing the RESET key, which in itself does not generate a chip reset.
The NMI interrupts are vectored through 65530 ($FFFA) to the NMI service routine (ISR) at 59316 ($E7B4), and all IRQ interrupts are vectored through 65534 ($FFFE) to the IRQ service routine at 59123 ($E6F3). In these service routine areas, the cause of the interrupt is determined, and the appropriate action is taken, either by the OS or through a JMP to a RAM vector where a user routine exists.
The VBLANK routines are all documented in the OS listings, pages 35 to 38. In the “A” ROMs, they are processed in locations 59345 to 59665 ($E7D1 to $E911). In the “B” ROMs, they are processed at 59310 to 59628 ($E7AE to $E8EC). See also De Re Atari for more explanation.
Performed every VBI:
Performed every VBI which does not interrupt critical sections:
Shadow: Hardware: Update reason: SDLISTL/H DLISTL/H DISPLAY LIST END SDMCTL DMACTL CHBAS CHBASE CHACT CHACTL GPRIOR PRIOR COLOR0-4 COLPF0-4,BAK ATTRACT MODE PCOL0-3 COLPM0-3 LPCNV/H PENV/H LIGHT PEN STICK0-1 PORTA JOYSTICKS PTRIG0-3 PORTA PADDLE TRIGGERS STICK2-3 PORTB PTRIG4-7 PORTB PADDL0-7 POT0-7 PADDLES STRIG0-3 TRIG0-3 JOYSTICK TRIGGERS .... CONSOL CONSOLE SPEAKER OFF
This diagram is not to scale; it is merely meant to give you a visual idea of the structure of the Atari memory. The numbers on the right are the memory pointers: these locations point to the addresses shown. The numbers on the left are the actual locations in memory.
Location Contents Pointers ┌────────────────────────────────────────────────────────-┐ 65535 _____ │ Top of memory __________________________________________│ │ Operating System ROM │ │ │ 60906-65535 │ Device handler routines 794-831 HATABS │ 59716-60905 │ Serial Input/Output (SIO) utilities │ 59093-59715 │ Interrupt handler 512,513 VDSLST │ │ 514-527 Vectors │ 58534-59092 │ Central Input/Output (CIO) utilities │ │ │ │ │ 58533 ____ │ Operating System vectors _______________________________│ 58496-58533 │ Initial RAM vectors on powerup │ 58448-58495 │ JMP vectors │ 58432-58447 │ Cassette │ 58416-58431 │ Printer │ 58400-58415 │ Keyboard │ 58384-58399 │ Screen │ 58368-58383 │ Editor │ │ │ │ │ 58367 _____ │ ROM Character set _________________ 756 CHBAS __________│ │ │ │ │ 57344 │ │ │ │ │ │ 57343 _____ │ Floating Point ROM package │ │ │ │ │ 55295 _____ │ I/O chips ______________________________________________│ │ │ │ │ 54784-55295 │ Unused │ 54272-54783 │ ANTIC 756 CHBAS │ │ 755 CH1 │ │ 564-565 LPEN │ │ 560-561 SDLSTL │ │ 559 SDMCTL │ 54016-54271 │ PIA 636-639 PTRIG# │ │ 632-635 STICK# │ 53760-54015 │ POKEY 624-631 PADDL# │ │ 562 SSKCTL │ │ 16 POKMSK │ 53504-53759 │ unused │ 53248-53503 │ GTIA or CTIA 704-707 PCOLR# │ │ 708-712 COLOR# │ │ 644-647 STRIG# │ │ 623 GPRIOR │ │ │ │ │ 53247 _____ │ Unused 4K ROM block ____________________________________│ │ │ │ │ 49151 _____ │ 8K BASIC ROM │ │ or Left cartridge (A) │ │ │ │ │ 40959 _____ │ Top of BASIC RAM or 106 RAMTOP │ ____________│_________________________________________________________│ │ 740 RAMSIZ │ │ │ │ Right cartridge (B) ROM if present │ │ (Atari 800 only) │ │ │ │ │ Size and │ │ location │ │ vary with │ │ GRAPHICS │ │ mode │ │ │ Text window screen RAM 60,661 TXTMSC │ │ 40800 for GR.0 │ │ │ │ Bottom of screen RAM 88,89 SAVMSC │ │ 40000 for GR.0 │ │ │ │ Display List: 560,561 SDLSTL │ │ 39968 for GR.0 │ │ │ │ Top of BASIC RAM 741,742 MEMTOP │ (OS) │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ 32768 │ │ │ │ │ │ 32767 _____ │ User-program RAM _______________________________________│ │ │ │ The amount of RAM can be ascertained by: │ │ PRINT FRE(0) │ │ │ │ Bottom varies: see note below │ (13062) │ Depends on buffer area allocated. │ │ │ │ │ │ RAM used by DOS and File System Manager │ │ │ │ 144,145 MEMTOP │ │ Stack for FOR-NEXT & GOSUB 142,143 RUNSTK │ │ 14,15 APPMHI │ Size and │ │ location │ │ vary with │ │ program │ │ size │ │ │ String & array table & │ │ end of BASIC program 140,141 STARP │ │ │ │ │ │ BASIC program │ │ area │ │ │ │ │ │ Statement table: 136,137 STMTAB │ │ Beginning of BASIC program │ │ Variable variable table 134,135 VVTP │ │ │ │ VNTP + 1 132,133 VNTD │ │ │ │ Variable name table 130,131 VNTP │ │ │ (7420) │ BASIC bottom of memory 743,744 MEMLO │ │ 128,129 LOMEM │ │ │ │ Sector buffers 4921,4937 SABUFL/H │ 6781 │ Drive & sector buffers 4905,4913 DBUFA1/H │ 6047 │ DOS vector 10,11 DOSVEC │ 5440 │ DUP.SYS start │ │ │ 5377 │ VTOC buffer │ │ DOS initialization 12,13 DOSINI │ │ or BASIC RAM without (743,744 MEMLO) │ │ DOS resident (128,129 LOMEM) │ │ FMSRAM │ 1792 │ DUP.SYS beginning │ │ │ │ │ 1791 ______ │ RAM used by OS and cartridge. │ │ (to bottom of RAM) │ │ │ │ Page six RAM │ │ │ │ ┌────────────────────────────────────────────-┤ │ 1535 ____ │ RAM used by BASIC __________________________│ │ │ (to bottom of RAM) │ │ │ │ │ 1406 │ Floating Point RAM │ │ 1405 │ BASIC RAM │ │ │ │ │ │ ┌─────────────────────────────────────┤ │ │ 1151 │ Operating System RAM │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ Cassette buffer │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ Printer buffer │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ IOCB’s │ │ │ │ │ │ │ 512 │ │ │ │ │ ___________________________________│ │ │ 511 │ Stack │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ 256 │ │ │ │ │ ___________________________________│ │ │ 255 │ BASIC zero page RAM │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ Floating Point pg. 0 │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ Assembler Cart. pg. 0 │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ 128 │ │ │ │ │ ___________________________________│ │ │ 127 │ OS page zero RAM │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ Zero page IOCB │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ 0 │ Bottom of memory │ └──────────-┴──────-┴─────────────────────────────────────┘
The bottom of the BASIC RAM depends on whether or not you have DOS files loaded in. Without DOS, LOMEM should be 1792, with DOS 7420. If you increase or decrease the number of disk and sector buffers by modifying DOS, this value will change again. See locations 743, 744 and 1801, 1802.
The size and location of the variable, string and array tables depend on the program use and size. The more variables and arrays, the larger the memory the tables use.
The size and address of the Display List and screen memory depend on the GRAPHICS mode in use.
The first 256 bytes pointed to by LOMEM are the token output buffer. The actual BASIC program starts at the address pointed to by VNTP.
clock frequency = 1.79 MHZ 1 machine cycle = 0.558 usec. 1 frame = 1/60 second scan lines = 262/frame color clocks = 228/scan line color clocks = 2/machine cycle machine cycles = 29868/frame machine cycles = 114/scan line
VBLANK time = 7980 machine cycles or less, depending on GRAPHICS mode. The shortest 6502 instruction requires two cycles; during that time the electron beam moves four color clocks.
Horizontal blank time: Wide playfield 18 machine cycles Normal playfield 34 machine cycles Narrow playfield 50 machine cycles
See the Hardware Manual for more information on cycle counting.
The new OS ROMs have been mentioned throughout the book. They fixed some of the earlier OS bugs, but also changed a few ROM locations in the process. The result is a better OS, but some of your earlier software which calls up old ROM locations may not work with the new.
There are two ways to test to see if you have the new or old ROMs; one is to PEEK location 58383, as described there. The other (the hardware solution) is to take out your ROM card, unscrew the metal top, and look inside. If the two chips facing you on your left have an “A” after their first code number, you have the earlier ROMs. If they have a “B”, lucky you. You have the latest ROMs. There is also the empirical test: if your drive times out during I/O operations, you’ve got the old ROMs.
Here are the differences between the new and old ROM locations. There are also a number of changes made with the new ROMs to the vectors at locations 512 to 534, 546 to 549 and 550. Refer to those locations and the OS locations for more information. The list below first specifies the old ROM locations, then the changes in the new ROMs.
55296-57343 (FP package) same
57344-58367 (character set) same
58368-58477 (vector tables) are the same to 58459 ($E45B) where there are changes in the table between 58460-58466 ($E45C to $E462).
58467-59092 ($E463-$E6D4) same
59093 ($E6D5) is the start of the IRQ handler. Changes to the new ROMs begin at 59126 ($E6F6) and continue to the end of the new IRQ handler at 59280 ($E790).
59316 ($E7B4) is the NMI interrupt handler in the old ROMs, now starts at 59281 ($E791). It is the same as the old version except moved 35 bytes lower.
59345 ($E7D1) is the start of the VBLANK routines in the old ROMs; they now start at 59310 ($E7AE) in the new ROMs. The routines remain the same until the SETVBL routine is reached at 59666 ($E912) old ROMs, 59629 ($E8ED) new ROMs. The changes to the VBLANK routine are mostly to adjust for the shift in the new memory locations.
58457 ($E459) is the SIO entry point for both versions. There are changes in the SIO routines to accommodate the new memory locations, but the entry point is still the same.
60048 ($EA90) output data needed interrupt service routine is changed, but the entry point is the same in both versions.
60113 ($EAD1) the transmit done interrupt service routine is the same, but has a new entry point at 60111 ($EACF).
60130 ($EAE2) the receive routine has some address changes and is moved to 60128 ($EAE0).
60177 ($EB11) the serial input ready interrupt service routine is the same, but the new entry point is 60175 ($EB0F).
60222 ($EB3E) the SIO subroutines have some changes and a new entry point at 60220 ($EB3C).
60270 ($EB6E) the load buffer subroutine is the same, but moved to 60266 ($EB6A).
60292 to 60905 ($EB84 to $EDE9) all of the routines in this area are the same, but have entry points four bytes lower in ROM (i.e., 60288; $EB80).
60906 to 62014 ($EDEA to $F23E) these routines are the same and at the same locations in both versions.
62015 ($F23F) test for RAM and special cartridge has the same entry point, but has some changes to the routine.
62038 ($F256) RAM check subroutine has changes and a new entry point, now at 62036 ($F254).
62081 ($F281) the hardware initialization routines, have changes and a new entry point at 62071 ($F277) in the new ROMs. The changes continue to 62159 ($F2CF) where everything again becomes the same for both versions until the end of ROM at 65535 ($FFFF).
Color is a very important aspect in the Atari computers; you may not fully appreciate it unless you’ve spent a long time working with computers or monitors with monochrome displays. The Atari has sixteen colors available for display in eight different luminance (brightness) factors. These colors are stored in memory locations 704 to 712. The first four of these registers are used to determine the color of your players and missiles. The second five determine the color of the playfields, background, lines drawn and areas filled.
The Atari has a default value for each of the five playfield registers that is assigned on powerup:
Playfield Location Color Value 0 708 Orange 40 1 709 Light green 202 2 710 Dark blue 148 3 711 Red 70 4 (BAK) 712 Black 0
The figure in the value category represents the number you would get if you PEEKed into that location. For discussion of the locations, refer to the Memory Map.
To change these colors, you can use either a POKE statement or the BASIC command SETCOLOR (abbreviated to SE). You should refer to the description in the earlier Memory Map text. SETCOLOR has three parameters: the register to change (which always corresponds to one of the memory locations above); the hue (a number from zero to fifteen which corresponds to the available colors); and the luminance (an even number between zero and fourteen). The Atari will treat any odd number as if it were the next lowest even number where luminance is concerned. Your statement might look like this:
This will produce the orange color in playfield zero. To change it to red, you would use:
Unless you are changing the background or border or you are changing a register which has already been used for drawing on the screen, you won’t see any change from using SETCOLOR. The effect comes when you follow up with a COLOR command, telling the Atari which register to use for the DRAWTO or fill command. You can easily POKE the location with the proper color value by using this formula:
COLOR = HUE * 16 + LUMINANCE
So the orange in the above example would be obtained by:
and the red by:
These are the values listed in the chart above. It’s quite simple to change them to your own colors using either method. Of course, you’ll have to adjust your colors every time you change GRAPHICS modes or press RESET, since both restore the registers to their default values. What’s more, the player/missile registers can only be changed using POKE; they have no corresponding SETCOLOR commands and are all preset to zero. The winter 81/82 edition of The Atari Connection, the house organ of Atari Inc., had a nice little chart in full color to display all of the colors available. The SETCOLOR number in the following list is the value you would place as the second number in the statement right after the register number.
SETCOLOR POKE Color number number Black 0 0 Rust 1 16 Red-orange 2 32 Dark orange 3 48 Red 4 64 Dark lavender 5 80 Cobalt blue 6 96 Ultramarine blue 7 112 Medium blue 8 128 Dark blue 9 144 Blue-grey 10 166 Olive green 11 176 Medium green 12 192 Dark green 13 208 Orange-green 14 224 Orange 15 240
The next number in the SETCOLOR statement would be the luminance. You would add the luminance value to the POKE number.
When you want to use the DRAWTO or XIO 18 (FILL) commands, you must first specify what color register to use by the COLOR command. The confusing part for most people is that the number in the COLOR command doesn’t correspond to the same number as the SETCOLOR register and, to make things worse, it’s not always the same number in different GRAPHICS modes! Modes zero, one, and two are text modes; they print characters to the screen rather than graphics, so you don’t use the COLOR command in these modes. In GR.0, you actually have only one color as chosen by SETCOLOR 2. The luminance is ignored in this command and is instead set with SETCOLOR 1 — where the color is ignored. You can use SETCOLOR to change the colors of the text and the background as below:
GRAPHICS 0 SETCOLOR Register Character luminance 1 709 Background 2 710 Border (BAK) 4 712 GRAPHICS 1 and 2 SETCOLOR Register Uppercase and numbers 0 708 Lowercase characters 1 709 Inverse uppercase 2 710 Inverse lowercase 3 711 Background, border 4 712
When you want to draw or fill an area in modes three to eight, you must use the proper COLOR statement for the SETCOLOR register:
GRAPHICS 3, 5, 7 SETCOLOR COLOR Register Four color modes Graphics point or 0 1 708 fill area 1 2 709 2 3 710 Background, border 4 0 712 GRAPHICS 4, 6 SETCOLOR COLOR Register Two color modes Graphics point 0 1 708 Background, border 4 0 712 GRAPHICS 8 SETCOLOR COLOR Register One color, two luminances Graphics luminance 1 1 709 Background color 2 0 710 Border 4 ── 712
It’s awkward, but not difficult to use. You will have to refer to this chart or the chart on page 53 of your BASIC Reference Manual until you get the hang of it. Remember to precede any COLOR statement with a SETCOLOR somewhere in your program and to precede a DRAW or XIO 18 with a COLOR or the computer will use the previously designated register.
The GTIA chip confuses things somewhat: in GRAPHICS 10, register 704 stores the background color while 712 is used as a normal color register. This means you must change it with a POKE rather than a SETCOLOR statement. However, in the two other GTIA modes (GR.9 and GR. 11), you still use location 712, SETCOLOR 4, for the background; see the examples of GTIA modes at location 623.
With GRAPHICS 9, the COLOR command is used to set the luminance level to one of sixteen possible values; the value you use with the COLOR statement is equal to the luminance used (so you can have COLOR 15, COLOR 10, etc. Actually you can use any value up to 255 with COLOR and not get an error message; see the demo program for GR.11 in location 623). SETCOLOR 4 defines the background and graphics color. There is only one color in GR.9. In GRAPHICS 11, COLOR is used to define the color the same way it is used for luminance in GR.9, while the luminance of each color is the same value; you can have sixteen colors all of the same luminance. GRAPHICS 10 allows you to set the nine color registers to individual colors and luminances, but you must use POKE commands for the registers 704 to 707.
For more information on the GTIA modes, see COMPUTE!, July to September 1982, and De Re Atari. There are many good programs for drawing your own pictures in various GRAPHICS modes; Micropainter from Datasoft is one of my favorites; then there’s Drawpic from Artworx, The Graphics Machine from Santa Cruz, Graphic Master from Datasoft, Graphics Composer from Versaware and The Next Step from Online which is really a utility for character creation and color set selection. COMPUTE! published an interesting program called “Supercube” over many issues in 1980 and 1981.
Sound on the Atari can be quite sophisticated or quite simple, depending on your needs and programming abilities. Simple sounds may be input using the SOUND command; you enter the voice (zero to three), the pitch (zero to 255), the distortion (even numbers from zero to fourteen) and the volume (one to fifteen) in this manner:
This will give you a pure tone middle C, moderate volume. The SOUND command is only one way to adjust your music or sound in the Atari. You can also POKE directly into the POKEY registers to effect changes. For example, you can increase the normal five octave range to nine by setting the proper bits in location 53768. This method reduces the number of voices to two or three, but does give you quite a range. You can use all sorts of tricks with filters, clock channels, and poly counters, as described in the POKEY locations. For the best description of sound control technique, see De Re Atari. Here are the pitch values for the major notes when used with a pure tone in the sound command:
Note Octave 1 2 3 4 5 C 14 29 60 121* 243 B 15 31 64 128 255 A# or Bb 16 33 68 136 A 17 35 72 144 G# or Ab 18 37 76 153 G 19 40 81 162 F# or Gb 21 42 85 173 F 22 45 91 182 E 23 47 96 193 D# or Eb 24 50 102 204 D 26 53 108 217 C# or Db 27 57 114 230
You can see that the intervals between notes increase as the pitch decreases (the larger the number, the lower the pitch). Middle C is marked with “*”. Here’s a simple routine to test pitch and distortion with one voice:
5 PRINT CHR$(125):POKE 752,2 10 A=0:B=0:C=0 20 SOUND 0,A,B,C:POSITION 0,0 30 PRINT "PITCH", "DISTORTION", "VOLUME" 35 POSITION 0,2:PRINT A, B;" ",,C;" " 40 IF STICK(0)=14 THEN A=A+1:IF A>255 THEN A=0:GOTO 20 50 IF STICK(0)=13 THEN A=A-1:IF A<0 THEN A=255:GOTO 20 60 IF STICK(0)=7 THEN B=B+2:IF B>14 THEN B=0:GOTO 20 70 IF STICK(0)=11 THEN B=B-2:IF B<0 THEN B=14:GOTO 20 80 IF STRIG(0)=0 THEN C=C+1:IF C>15 THEN C=0:GOTO 20 90 GOTO 20
You move the stick up or down to change pitch, right or left to change the distortion level. Press the trigger to change the volume level. See Softside, #30 for a similar program using all four voices and Santa Cruz’s Tricky Tutorial #6 (sound). You should also examine Atari’s Music Composer cartridge; it is not only a fine program, but it also has excellent documentation on music, sound, and composition. There are two excellent programs from APX, Sound Editor and Insomnia, both of which allow you to create sounds to include in your programs (not tunes however). Insomnia is particularly interesting in that it creates sound which is played during the VBLANK intervals.
You have no doubt seen this little map in dozens of publications. It shows you where your PM graphics are located in memory. The problem is: what does it mean? I’ll attempt to explain it below. First, the map:
Double One byte wide Single Line Line Resolution Resolution Offset Offset 0 ┌─────────────────┐ 0 │ │ │ unused │ │ area │ +384 ├────┬───┬───┬────┤ +768 │ 0 │ 1 │ 2 │ 3 │ │ missiles │ │ │ +512 ├─────────────────┤ +1024 │ │ │ Player 0 │ │ │ +640 ├─────────────────┤ +1280 │ │ │ Player 1 │ │ │ +768 ├─────────────────┤ +1536 │ │ │ Player 2 │ │ │ +896 ├─────────────────┤ +1792 │ │ │ Player 3 │ │ │ +1024 └─────────────────┘ +2048
No matter where in memory you reserve your PM graphics area, the location of the space used by the players and missiles will be offset the same number of bytes from the beginning of the reserved area. That’s what the offset numbers represent: the number of bytes from the beginning of the PM area where that object’s graphics begin.
So, if you decide to reserve sixteen pages (4096 bytes) from the top of your memory (40960), your PM graphics will begin at 36864. Depending on which resolution you have chosen, the missile graphics area will begin either 384 or 768 bytes from that location: or at 37248 and 37632 respectively. In double line resolution, you can define your objects up to 128 bytes in length; in single line they can be 256 bytes long.
Even if your object is only eight or ten bytes in height, the boundaries for their placement are always the same relative offset from the top of PM graphics memory.
This map is only eight bits — one byte — wide. You can see that all four missiles share the same width byte, each using two bits for resolution. If you combine the missiles to form a fifth player, you use this area exactly as you would the area for any other player.
One means of moving your players vertically is to move the players within their reserved area rather than on the screen itself. In BASIC, this is considerably faster than having to move the player on the screen, but it’s a slow process anyway. As far as the boundaries of the TV set are concerned, all players in both resolutions are mapped to the entire height of the screen.
There are many good programs to create and edit PM graphics, mentioned earlier in the Memory Map text. PM graphics are one of the Atari’s most powerful and least understood capabilities. I suggest you read up on them and try to master their use; they’re not as difficult as they seem.
A display list is a short program for the ANTIC chip, telling it how to display data on the screen. This program includes such instructions as how many blank lines to place on the screen for top boundaries, where the screen display data is stored, what mode the line(s) to be displayed are in, whether or not there is an interrupt to execute and where to find the display list itself.
There are nine pre-programmed display lists (ten with the GTIA) you use in BASIC, one for each GRAPHICS mode. You can examine the display lists for each mode by running the program at location 560. You can change these lists to suit your own needs without much effort. It is quite easy to design and implement your own display list once you know where it’s located and what the proper instructions are.
Certain techniques, such as horizontal and vertical fine scrolling, require that you modify the display list in order to properly display your screen data. Sometimes you want to be able to display data in more than one mode or mix graphics and text in the same screen. These are all done by modifying the display list.
The smallest display list is for GRAPHICS 2, so I’ll use it as an example. It consists of a mere twenty odd bytes, but the format is the same for every list; it’s just the instructions that change. Use the program listed in the Memory Map to examine the list or use a simple two-liner such as:
10 GRAPHICS 2:P=PEEK(560)+PEEK(561)*256 20 FOR N=0 TO 23:PRINT PEEK(P + N);" ";:NEXT N
When you RUN this example, you should get this:
112 112 112 71 112 158 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 66 96 159 2 2 2 65 88 158
Or something similar depending on your available memory. If you change the GR.2 to GR.2 + 16, you will get:
112 112 112 71 112 158 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 65 92 158
The display list instruction set is discussed at location 560, but here’s a chart to summarize it:
Instruction BASIC Scan Pixels Bytes Comments Decimal Hex mode lines line line Blank instructions 0 0 ── 1 ── ── 1 blank line 16 10 ── 2 ── ── 2 blank lines 32 20 ── 3 ── ── 3 blank lines 48 30 ── 4 ── ── 4 blank lines 64 40 ── 5 ── ── 5 blank lines 80 50 ── 6 ── ── 6 blank lines 96 60 ── 7 ── ── 7 blank lines 112 70 ── 8 ── ── 8 blank lines Display instructions 2 2 0 8 40 40 text mode 0 3 3 ── 10 40 40 text mode * 4 4 ── 8 40 40 text mode * 5 5 ── 16 40 40 text mode * 6 6 1 8 20 20 text mode l 7 7 2 16 20 20 text mode 2 8 8 3 8 40 10 graphics mode 3 9 9 4 4 80 10 graphics mode 4 10 A 5 4 80 20 graphics mode 5 11 B 6 2 160 20 graphics mode 6 12 C ── 1 160 20 graphics mode * 13 D 7 2 160 40 graphics mode 7 14 E ── 1 160 40 graphics mode * 15 F 8 1 320 40 graphics mode 8 Jump instructions (three bytes long) 1 1 ── ── ── ── jump to location 65 41 ── ── ── ── jump and wait for VBLANK
Modes marked with an asterisk (*) have no equivalent in BASIC. These are the instructions in the display list. You can alter the display instructions by setting the bits for horizontal or vertical scroll, load memory scan (tells ANTIC where the next line(s) to be displayed are in memory and what mode to use for them) and enable a display list interrupt. These are:
Function add decimal hex bit Horizontal scroll 16 10 4 Vertical scroll 32 20 5 Load memory scan 64 40 6 Display list interrupt 128 80 7
The LMS instruction is a three-byte instruction; the second and third bytes are the LSB and MSB of the address where the line or screen data is to be displayed. You can add any or all of these modifications to the text or graphics mode instructions. You can only add the interrupt modification to blank line or jump instructions. The two bytes that follow the jump instructions are the LSB and MSB of the address to which the ANTIC jumps to continue or repeat the list.
So let’s analyze the DL for GRAPHICS 2 that we printed above:
112 These three instructions print 112 24 blank scan lines at the top 112 of the screen 71 GR.2 with LMS instruction added 112 Address of the first line of screen data 158 158 * 256 + 112 = 40560 7 Display the rest of the data in 7 GR.2, so we have a total of 7 ten GR.2 lines, or 10 * 16 = 7 160 scan lines used. 7 7 7 7 7 66 GR.0 with LMS instruction added 96 Address of the text window at bottom 159 159 * 256 + 96 = 40800 2 GR.0 for text window, so we have 2 a total of four lines 2 65 Jump and wait for vertical blank 88 Address of display list itself 158 158 * 256 + 88 = 40536 (return to the top of this list)
Now examine the list for GR.2 + 16. You can see that it adds two 7’s to replace the GR.0 lines at the bottom of the screen. A little math shows us that the screen in both cases has a total of 192 scan lines. That’s an important number; if you want your screen to come out properly, you must insure that you get as close to this figure as possible; otherwise you’ll end up with blank lines at the bottom of your screen, or worse — in the display itself.
You will find the value 112 in every Atari display list. The three of them are used to bring the display to a readable location on your set. Try replacing one or more of them with a zero to see what happens without them. The jump instructions are also used to skip across a 1K boundary, since the DL itself cannot cross a 1K boundary without such a jump. Also, DL data cannot cross a 4K boundary, so you must use an LMS instruction before crossing one.
The critical factor in designing your own display list is to make sure that the data and the scan lines match. This may require you to manipulate your data so that you have the proper number of bytes per line so that the display appears correctly on the screen. Here are the number of bits per pixel for each of the ANTIC modes:
Mode Bits per decimal hex BASIC pixel 2 2 0 8 text modes 3 3 ── 8 4 4 ── 8 5 5 ── 8 6 6 1 8 7 7 2 8 8 8 3 2 graphics modes 9 9 4 1 10 A 5 2 11 B 6 1 12 C ── 1 13 D 7 2 14 E ── 2 15 F 8 1
You can have as many DL’s as you wish, using the jump/vertical blank instruction at the end of the DL to tell ANTIC where your new DL is located. When placing your new DL (page six, unless used for other routines, is a good protected place to put it), do a POKE 559,0 to disable the DL fetch instructions, then POKE it with the proper value to turn it back on afterwards. Be inventive and create your own screens with varied lines of text and graphics.
I suggest that you read De Re Atari and Your Atari 400/800 for more information. The latter has a few good examples of altered display lists and tells how to create them. Two DL utilities are The Next Step from Online and Tricky Tutorial #1 from Santa Cruz.
If you use this map a lot, or use the Atari a lot for machine language routines, interrupts, graphics and the like, you know the need to translate between decimal and hexadecimal, even back and forth with binary, frequently. It is possible, although tedious, to do your translations by hand, using pencil and paper. The tables for doing so are below. It’s not the best nor the fastest method available. I recommend you get the Texas Instruments TI Programmer calculator. It does most of this work for you, plus bit manipulation (unfortunately it does not offer binary translation). It’s an indispensable tool for programmers.
There are other ways around buying the calculator: you can buy Monkey Wrench from Eastern House Software, which will do the hex - decimal translations for you quite nicely. Or you can buy any of the numerous disk or programming utilities which include such translation routines, such as Disk Scan from Micro Media. However, those who wish to do the work themselves can use a simple translator program. One such example, modified from routines that appeared separately in COMPUTE!, November 1981 and March 1982, is:
10 DIM HEX$(16),DEC$(23),NUM$(10),W$(4),BIN$(8),BNY$(8),TRANS(8) 15 DATA 128,64,32,16,8,4,2,1 20 FOR N=1 TO 8:READ B:TRANS(N)=B:NEXT N:POKE 201,14 25 PRINT CHR$(125) 30 HEX$="0123456789ABCDEF":DEC$"=@ABCDEFGHI!!!!!!!JKLMNO" 40 ? :? "PRESS OPTION FOR HEXADECIMAL":? " SELECT FOR DECIMAL":? " START FOR BINARY" 42 ? " TRANSLATIONS":A=1:MAX=4096 50 IF PEEK(53279)=3 THEN GOTO 100 60 IF PEEK(53279)=5 THEN GOTO 200 70 IF PEEK(53279)=6 THEN GOTO 300 80 GOTO 50 100 ? :? "ENTER HEXADECIMAL NUMBER":"? "$0000 TO $FFFF": INPUT NUM$:ACC=0:A=1:TRAP 100 120 FOR NUM=1 TO LEN(NUM$):ACC=ACC*16+ASC(DEC$(ASC(NUM$(NUM))-47))-64:NEXT NUM:T=ACC 125 IF ACC>255 THEN BNY$="........":GOTO 170 130 FOR N=7 TO 0 STEP-1:BIN=2^N 135 IF INT(ACC/BIN)=1 THEN BNY$(A,A)="1":ACC=ACC-BIN:GOTO 150 140 BNY$(A,A)="0" 150 A=A+1:NEXT N 170 ? :? "HEXADECIMAL","DECIMAL","BINARY" 180 ? " ";NUM$,T,BNY$ 190 ? :? :GOTO 40 200 ? :? "ENTER DECIMAL NUMBER":? "0 TO 65535": INPUT NUM:T=NUM:Z=T:MAX=4096:TRAP 200 205 IF NUM>65535 THEN GOTO 200 208 IF NUM<1 THEN GOTO 200 210 FOR N=1 TO 4:BYTE=INT(NUM/MAX):W$(N,N)=HEX$(BYTE+1,BYTE+1):NUM=NUM-MAX*BYTE:MAX=MAX/16:NEXT N 220 IF T>255 THEN BNY$="........":GOTO 270 230 FOR N=7 TO 0 STEP -1:BIN=2^N 235 IF INT(Z/BIN)=1 THEN BNY$(A,A)="1":Z=Z-BIN:GOTO 250 240 BNY$(A,A)="0" 250 A=A+1:NEXT N 270 ? :? "DECIMAL","HEXADECIMAL","BINARY" 280 ? " ";T,W$,BNY$ 290 GOTO 40 300 ? :? "INPUT BINARY NUMBER":? "00000000 TO 11111111":? :? "76543210 BITS":INPUT BIN$:TRAP 300 305 IF LEN(BIN$)<>8 THEN GOTO 300 308 FOR B=1 TO 8:IF VAL(BIN$(B,B))>1 THEN POP:GOTO 300 310 NEXT B 320 FOR B=1 TO 8:IF BIN$(B,B)="1" THEN TOT=TOT+TRANS(B) 325 NEXT B:Q=TOT 330 FOR L=1 TO 4:BYTE=INT(TOT/MAX):W$(L,L)=HEX$(BYTE+1,BYTE+1):TOT=TOT-MAX*BYTE:MAX=MAX/16:NEXT L 340 ? :? "BINARY","HEXADECIMAL","DECIMAL" 350 ? " ";BIN$,W$,Q 390 GOTO 40
This program will translate any hexadecimal, decimal, and binary number to and from the others. There are some constraints in its use: it will not translate a binary number for any hex number larger than $FF or decimal number larger than 255. It will not translate any hex number larger than $FFFF or any decimal number larger than 65535. Since about 99% of your numeric manipulations will be within these ranges, you should have no problems. You can easily remove the translation routines from the program for use in your own utility.
For a quick way to translate any number in the range of zero to 65535 ($FFFF), use the table below. It’s quite simple to use: to translate hex to decimal you take the number that appears in the column that corresponds to the value in the proper row and add the values together. The total is your decimal number. For example:
$7AC1 = 28672 fourth column, 7 2560 third column, A 192 second column, C 1 first column, 1 ───── 31425 decimal value
To translate decimal into hex, you find the largest number less than the number you wish to translate and subtract it from your original number. The value in the row is the first hexadecimal value. You then do the same with the remainder until your result is zero. The values in the row are then concatenated together for a hexadecimal number. For example:
31425 = 31425 - 28672 largest number, column four. first hex number = 7 ───── 2753 remainder, minus third column 2560 second hex number = A ───── 193 remainder, minus second column 192 third hex number = C ───── 1 remainder and fourth hex number Hexadecimal value = $7AC1
Hex Column Hex number fourth third second first number 1 4096 256 16 1 1 2 8192 512 32 2 2 3 12288 768 48 3 3 4 16384 1024 64 4 4 5 20480 1280 80 5 5 6 24576 1536 96 6 6 7 28672 1792 112 7 7 8 32768 2048 128 8 8 9 36864 2304 144 9 9 A 40960 2560 160 10 A B 45056 2816 176 11 B C 49152 3072 192 12 C D 53248 3328 208 13 D E 57344 3584 224 14 E F 61440 3840 240 15 F
The next few pages are simply a listing of the decimal, hex,and binary values for the range of numbers between zero and 255. I have found this listing to be extremely useful when I couldn’t enter a translator program or lay my hands on a calculator. Read the note in the introduction regarding the translation techniques for binary and hexadecimal.
Decimal Hex Binary Decimal Hex Binary Decimal Hex Binary 0 0 00000000 34 22 00100010 68 44 01000100 1 1 00000001 35 23 00100011 69 45 01000101 2 2 00000010 36 24 00100100 70 46 01000110 3 3 00000011 37 25 00100101 71 47 01000111 4 4 00000100 38 26 00100110 72 48 01001000 5 5 00000101 39 27 00100111 73 49 01001001 6 6 00000110 40 28 00101000 74 4A 01001010 7 7 00000111 41 29 00101001 75 4B 01001011 8 8 00001000 42 2A 00101010 76 4C 01001100 9 9 00001001 43 2B 00101011 77 4D 01001101 10 A 00001010 44 2C 00101100 78 4E 01001110 11 B 00001011 45 2D 00101101 79 4F 01001111 12 C 00001100 46 2E 00101110 80 50 01010000 13 D 00001101 47 2F 00101111 81 51 01010001 14 E 00001110 48 30 00110000 82 52 01010010 15 F 00001111 49 31 00110001 83 53 01010011 16 10 00010000 50 32 00110010 84 54 01010100 17 11 00010001 51 33 00110011 85 55 01010101 18 12 00010010 52 34 00110100 86 56 01010110 19 13 00010011 53 35 00110101 87 57 01010111 20 14 00010100 54 36 00110110 88 58 01011000 21 15 00010101 55 37 00110111 89 59 01011001 22 16 00010110 56 38 00111000 90 5A 01011010 23 17 00010111 57 39 00111001 91 5B 01011011 24 18 00011000 58 3A 00111010 92 5C 01011100 25 19 00011001 59 3B 00111011 93 5D 01011101 26 1A 00011010 60 3C 00111100 94 5E 01011110 27 1B 00011011 61 3D 00111101 95 5F 01011111 28 1C 00011100 62 3E 00111110 96 60 01100000 29 1D 00011101 63 3F 00111111 97 61 01100001 30 1E 00011110 64 40 01000000 98 62 01100010 31 1F 00011111 65 41 01000001 99 63 01100011 32 20 00100000 66 42 01000010 100 64 01100100 33 21 00100001 67 43 01000011 101 65 01100101
Decimal Hex Binary Decimal Hex Binary Decimal Hex Binary 102 66 01100110 163 A3 10100011 224 E0 11100000 103 67 01100111 164 A4 10100100 225 E1 11100001 104 68 01101000 165 A5 10100101 226 E2 11100010 105 69 01101001 166 A6 10100110 227 E3 11100011 106 6A 01101010 167 A7 10100111 228 E4 11100100 107 6B 01101011 168 A8 10101000 229 E5 11100101 108 6C 01101100 169 A9 10101001 230 E6 11100110 109 6D 01101101 170 AA 10101010 231 E7 11100111 110 6E 01101110 171 AB 10101011 232 E8 11101000 111 6F 01101111 172 AC 10101100 233 E9 11101001 112 70 01110000 173 AD 10101101 234 EA 11101010 113 71 01110001 174 AE 10101110 235 EB 11101011 114 72 01110010 175 AF 10101111 236 EC 11101100 115 73 01110011 176 B0 10110000 237 ED 11101101 116 74 01110100 177 B1 10110001 238 EE 11101110 117 75 01110101 178 B2 10110010 239 EF 11101111 118 76 01110110 179 B3 10110011 240 F0 11110000 119 77 01110111 180 B4 10110100 241 F1 11110001 120 78 01111000 181 B5 10110101 242 F2 11110010 121 79 01111001 182 B6 10110110 243 F3 11110011 122 7A 01111010 183 B7 10110111 244 F4 11110100 123 7B 01111011 184 B8 10111000 245 F5 11110101 124 7C 01111100 185 B9 10111001 246 F6 11110110 125 7D 01111101 186 BA 10111010 247 F7 11110111 126 7E 01111110 187 BB 10111011 248 F8 11111000 127 7F 01111111 188 BC 10111100 249 F9 11111001 128 80 10000000 189 BD 10111101 250 FA 11111010 129 81 10000001 190 BE 10111110 251 FB 11111011 130 82 10000010 191 BF 10111111 252 FC 11111100 131 83 10000011 192 C0 11000000 253 FD 11111101 132 84 10000100 193 C1 11000001 254 FE 11111110 133 85 10000101 194 C2 11000010 255 FF 11111111 134 86 10000110 195 C3 11000011 135 87 10000111 196 C4 11000100 136 88 10001000 197 C5 11000101 137 89 10001001 198 C6 11000110 138 8A 10001010 199 C7 11000111 139 8B 10001011 200 C8 11001000 140 8C 10001100 201 C9 11001001 141 8D 10001101 202 CA 11001010 142 8E 10001110 203 CB 11001011 143 8F 10001111 204 CC 11001100 144 90 10010000 205 CD 11001101 145 91 10010001 206 CE 11001110 146 92 10010010 207 CF 11001111 147 93 10010011 208 D0 11010000 148 94 10010100 209 D1 11010001 149 95 10010101 210 D2 11010010 150 96 10010110 211 D3 11010011 151 97 10010111 212 D4 11010100 152 98 10011000 213 D5 11010101 153 99 10011001 214 D6 11010110 154 9A 10011010 215 D7 11010111 155 9B 10011011 216 D8 11011000 156 9C 10011100 217 D9 11011001 157 9D 10011101 218 DA 11011010 158 9E 10011110 219 DB 11011011 159 9F 10011111 220 DC 11011100 160 A0 10100000 221 DD 11011101 161 A1 10100001 222 DE 11011110 162 A2 10100010 223 DF 11011111
Character ATASCII Internal Character ATASCII Internal space 32 0 Z 90 58 ! 33 1 [ 91 59 " 34 2 \ 92 60 # 35 3 ] 93 61 $ 36 4 ^ 94 62 % 37 5 _ 95 63 & 38 6 CTRL-, 0 64 ' 39 7 CTRL-A 1 65 ( 40 8 CTRL-B 2 66 ) 41 9 CTRL-C 3 67 * 42 10 CTRL-D 4 68 + 43 11 CTRL-E 5 69 , 44 12 CTRL-F 6 70 - 45 13 CTRL-G 7 71 . 46 14 CTRL-H 8 72 / 47 15 CTRL-I 9 73 0 48 16 CTRL-J 10 74 1 49 17 CTRL-K 11 75 2 50 18 CTRL-L 12 76 3 51 19 CTRL-M 13 77 4 52 20 CTRL-N 14 78 5 53 21 CTRL-O 15 79 6 54 22 CTRL-P 16 80 7 55 23 CTRL-Q 17 81 8 56 24 CTRL-R 18 82 9 57 25 CTRL-S 19 83 : 58 26 CTRL-T 20 84 ; 59 27 CTRL-U 21 85 < 60 28 CTRL-V 22 86 = 61 29 CTRL-W 23 87 > 62 30 CTRL-X 24 88 ? 63 31 CTRL-Y 25 89 @ 64 32 CTRL-Z 26 90 A 65 33 ESCAPE 27 91 B 66 34 UP ARROW 28 92 C 67 35 DOWN D 68 36 ARROW 29 93 E 69 37 LEFT ARROW 30 94 F 70 38 RIGHT ARROW 31 95 G 71 39 CTRL-. 96 96 H 72 40 a 97 97 I 73 41 b 98 98 J 74 42 c 99 99 K 75 43 d 100 100 L 76 44 e 101 101 M 77 45 f 102 102 N 78 46 g 103 103 O 79 47 h 104 104 P 80 48 i 105 105 Q 81 49 j 106 106 R 82 50 k 107 107 S 83 51 l 108 108 T 84 52 m 109 109 U 85 53 n 110 110 V 86 54 o 111 111 W 87 55 p 112 112 X 88 56 q 113 113 Y 89 57 r 114 114
Character ATASCII Internal s 115 115 t 116 116 u 117 117 v 118 118 w 119 119 x 120 120 y 121 121 z 122 122 CTRL-; 123 123 | 124 124 CLEAR 125 125 DELETE 126 126 TAB 127 127
Inverse characters are the same as the characters above with 128 added to the values listed. This is done by setting the seventh bit (adding 128).
There are other codes used which are outside this range:
ATASCII Function 155 End Of Line (Return) 156 Delete line 157 Insert line 158 CTRL-Tab 159 Shift-Tab 253 CTRL-2 (buzzer) 254 Delete character 255 Insert character
See your Atari Reference Manual, pages C1 to C3 and F1. In order to print the arrow keys, clear, insert, delete, buzzer, escape key, or any of the codes listed above to the screen, you must press the ESC key before entering the keyboard character(s).
Not all of these codes can be sent to the printer. ATASCII codes zero to 31 print blank or they may send control codes to your printer, depending on the make. 96 will print a backwards apostrophe instead of a diamond, 123 will print a left bracket instead of a spade, 125 will print a right bracket instead of a clear, 126 will print a tildis instead of a backspace and 127 will print a blank instead of tab.
There is a third set of codes used by the Atari keyboard handler. These values are listed in the OS User’s Manual.
The material which follows is arranged by decimal address, hex, then name, followed by the description, In some locations, all that’s added is a particularly good reference article or book which further elucidates the use of that memory.
Lower memory locations used by BASIC and page six may be used for other purposes by other languages — the ABC and Datasoft BASIC compilers and MAC/65, for example, use many locations to perform different tasks from those performed in the same space by BASIC. Read the language’s or compiler’s memory map before using these locations in order to avoid a conflict. The same may be true of the more recent custom DOS programs which have been released since the first edition of the book.
A value of 3 means both cassette and disk boot were successful. You can trap the RESET button by POKE 9,3 followed by a POKE 2 and 3 (CASINI) with the address (LSB/MSB) of your machine language routine to trap RESET (also store 3 into location 9 within the routine) and an RTS at the end.
To trap RESET into rerunning your machine language program, load the initialization address of the program here. You can also do it through CASINI; see above.
The number referred to in the second paragraph should be 256 cubed minus 1 (256 * 256 * 256 - 1). Also, to get the number of seconds from the jiffy count, divide by 59.92334 (the actual VBI time interval), not 60. See articles by Stephen Levy in COMPUTE!’s Third Book of Atari and by Bob Cockcroft in ROM (December 1984 and February 1985) for articles on Atari timers.
The pointer to the current byte or character to be sent to the printer.
The current device number.
Zero means not sent.
POKE 66,1 to disable the update between shadow and hardware registers; then you can POKE directly into the hardware registers themselves. You can disable VBLANK at 54286 ($D40E) as well.
Reinitialized by FMS each time it takes control.
Both have a range of 0 to 39.
Has a range of 0 to 319.
To turn off the cursor when drawing in a text mode, POKE 752,1, followed by a PRINT statement, To get different colors, add a COLOR statement before the PLOT routine, The character will be the ASCII equivalent of the number which follows COLOR.
The program to save the graphics screen doesn’t work, To save your graphics screen, create a string to hold a machine language call routine:
1 DATA 104,104,104,170,76,66,228 2 REM PLA, PLA, PLA, TAX, JMP $E456 5 FOR N=1 TO 7:READ BYTE:ML$(N,N)=CHR$(BYTE):NEXT N
Now OPEN a channel for writing to disk (OPEN #4.8,0, "D:filename.ext"). Find RAMTOP (FINISH = PEEK(106) * 256 - 160), subtracting 160 bytes for any text window screen. Find the address of the display list (DLIST = PEEK(560) + 256 * PEEK(561): START = PEEK(DLIST + 4) + 256 * PEEK(DLIST + 5): HIGH = INT(START/256): LOW = START - 256 * HIGH), and POKE it into the proper location in the IOCB (POKE 900,LOW: POKE 901,HIGH).
Next, figure the screen length (SIZE = (FINISH - START) + 1: SZHI = INT(SIZE/256): SZLO = SIZE - 256 * B1), and POKE it into the IOCB (POKE 904,SZLO: POKE 905,SZHI). POKE the binary SAVE command into the IOCB (POKE 898,11). Call the CIO with the USR command (X=USR(ADR(ML$),4 * 16)). Finally, save your current graphics mode (MODE = PEEK(87): PUT #4,MODE) and color registers (FOR N = 708 TO 712: PUT #4,PEEK(N): NEXT N) and CLOSE #4.
To recall the screen, use the same USR routine and the above PEEKs and POKEs, but POKE 898,7 rather than 11. This was derived from a larger program by Fred Pinto in the March 1984 issue of Antic. An article by Steve Kaufman in COMPUTE!, November 1983, has a fast and dirty method which works just as well (save and load), but doesn’t save the color registers. Creative Computing, November 1983, also had a similar example in “Outpost Atari.”
See K.W. Harm’s article on the “RAMTOP Dragon” in COMPUTE!’s Second Book of Atari Graphics to see how to protect high memory; another article in the same book, by Jim Clark. describes how to protect low memory.
This is the change of vertical position when drawing a sloped line.
Direction of line draw: 0 is down, 255 is up.
Direction of draw: 0 is right, 255 is left.
Iterations or steps required to draw a line.
COMPUTE!, October 1983, has an article by E.H. Foerster on how to reserve a portion of RAM above VNTD — within a BASIC program — which will also be saved intact when you save the program.
Another way to lock up the system if something is done — say, BREAK pressed — is by Z=USR(0).
BASIC’s modified EOL flag register. The Atari BASIC Sourcebook lists all the RAM locations used by BASIC (pages 144-147).
Address (LSB/MSB) of last POKE location, If no POKE command was given, it is the address of the last OPERATOR token (often 155 for EOL).
The data element being read. Registers the number of the element in that line, say the tenth item in a DATA statement.
DATA statement line number; the BASIC line number of a DATA statement being currently read. The RESTORE statement sets the locations (and 182, above) back to zero. You can do the same with a POKE. Here’s a program which demonstrates these locations from Steve Rockower, Atari SIG, CompuServe.
10 REM DEMONSTRATES 182-184($B6-$B8) AS SUBSTITUTES FOR RESTORE 20 REM 182 ($B6) POINTS TO ITEM OF A LINE TO BE READ NEXT 30 REM DATA STATEMENTS HAVE ELEMENT NAME SEQUENTIALLY AND 40 REM NUMBER IN CURRENT LINE 50 DIM C$(2),A$(20):C$=CHR$(125) 100 DATA ONE-1,TWO-2,THREE-3,FOUR-4,0 110 DATA FIVE-1,SIX-2,SEVEN-3,EIGHT-4,0 120 DATA <9-1>,<10-2>,<11-3>,<12-4>,1 150 PRINT C$:RESTORE 100 160 READ A$:IF A$="0" THEN 200 170 IF PEEK(182)=1 THEN PRINT :PRINT "READING LINE: ";PEEK(183)+256*PEEK(184) 180 IF A$="1" THEN 300 190 PRINT "#";PEEK(182);" "; A$;" ";:GOTO 160 200 PRINT :GOTO 160 300 PRINT :PRINT 310 TRAP 400:PRINT "WHICH DATA LINE (1,2, OR 3)";:INPUT DATALINE 320 PRINT "WHICH ITEM (1,2,3, OR 4)";:INPUT ITEM 330 LET DATALINE=90+10*DATALINE 340 POKE 184,INT(DATALINE/256):POKE 183,DATALINE-INT(DATALINE/256) 350 POKE 182,ITEM-1 360 READ A$:PRINT A$ 370 GOTO 310 400 END
Saves current line address.
Stores the COLOR number used in a PLOT or DRAWTO statement. The statement COLOR x can be replaced by POKE 200,x. Same as location 763 ($2FB), but BASIC takes the value from 200 and loads it into 763 before drawing or filling. From Judson Pewther, New York.
Load in progress flag.
BASIC floating-point work area. $D2 is used for the variable type, $D3 for the variable number and length of the FP mantissa.
Used by the USR command to return a two-byte number to BASIC. If you store nothing here, then the equation “I=USR(address, variables)” returns the address of the USR subroutine. Otherwise, you can store an integer (range 0-65535) here which becomes the value of the USR function, From Judson Pewther. New York.
Serial input ready vector.
Serial output ready vector.
In “From Here to Atari” in Micro, June and December 1983, Paul Swanson explained how POKEY timers work — properly. The manuals have an inaccurate description that causes your system to lock up. The method below is taken from those issues.
This is described for channel 1; it can be used in channels 2 and 4 (not 3) by selecting the appropriate control and interrupt vectors. First, POKE AUDCTL (53768; $D208) with a frequency value (0 = 64 kilohertz, 1 = 15 kilohertz, 96 = 1.79 megahertz). (You can actually change frequency between interrupts if you wish.) Next, set the channel control register (53761; $D201). Enter your interrupt routine and POKE its address into 528, 529 ($210, $211).
After this is done, POKE 53769,0 ($D209). Now enable the interrupt: POKE 16 with PEEK(16) plus the number of the interrupt you’re using (1 = timer 1 interrupt, 2 = timer 2, 4 = timer 4 — there’s no timer 3!). POKE the same value into 53774. Your interrupt routine will begin; it will generate an interrupt when the timer counts down to zero. The timer is reloaded with the original value you POKEd there, and the process begins all over again.
There are several problems to watch for: First, the OS pushes the A register onto the stack before jumping through the vector address. If you need the X and Y registers, push them on as well. Before you return from the interrupt, pull the X and Y back off, PLA, and clear the interrupt with CLI.
If you don’t need the screen display, POKE 559,0 to turn it off; DMA steals clock cycles from the timer, This means you’ll have to make any commands which deal with shadow registers (like SETCOLOR and GRAPHICS) first. DMA also turns off the keyboard repeat and realtime clock. Disable the keyboard to gain a bit more time if necessary.
Refer to Micro and ROM, December 1984, for more information about POKEY timers.
Each time you read this location, you get a different number. That’s because it’s counting down from when a key is depressed to time the delay before repeating the key.
Set when location 544,545 ($220,$221) counts down to zero. From Joe Gelman, Atari SIG, CompuServe.
The current SIO bus ID (device) number.
The pins on the joystick port are mapped as follows:
_______________________________ \ / \ 1 2 3 4 5 / \ / \ 6 7 8 9 / \_____________________/ 1 Stick forward 2 Stick back 3 Stick left 4 Stick right (1-4 are four bits of the PIA port) 5 Potentiometer (paddle) B input (analog pin 1) 6 Trigger 7 +5 volts (recommended load of one TTL at 50 ma) 8 GND 9 Potentiometer A input (analog pin 2)
See Creative Computing, August 1983, for an example of using the Atari ports for external control.
It’s quite handy to reserve a block of memory below your BASIC program and use it to store variables which can be passed back and forth between programs with PEEKs and POKEs, Here’s another routine which will reserve low memory for you:
5 PRINT FRE(0) 6 REM PROGRAM IS WIPED OUT AFTER RUNNING: BE SURE TO SAVE IT FIRST 7 REM PRINT FRE(0) AFTER RUNNING TO COMPARE VALUES 10 REM REPLACE BYTES VARIABLE WITH NUMBER OF BYTES TO PROTECT 20 MEMLO=BYTES+PEEK(743)+PEEK(744)*256 30 HIBYTE=INT(MEMLO/256) 40 LOBYTE=MEMLO-(INT(MEMLO/256)*256) 50 POKE 743,LOBYTE:POKE 744,HIBYTE 60 POKE 128,LOBYTE:POKE 129,HIBYTE:REM BASIC LOMEM POINTER 70 POKE 8,0:REM RESET FLAG 80 X=USR(40960):REM JUMP TO BASIC COLDSTART
Watch out for conflict with 755 when setting this location (and vice versa).
See COMPUTE!’s Third Book of Atari for an article by Frank Jones on creating blinking characters.
Not the color times 16 plus luminance; this is the number of the latest COLOR statement, taken from location 200 ($C8). If you POKE the number here, BASIC will take the number stored in location 200 and dump it, changing your value (not so in machine language, however). From Karl Wiegers, Rochester, and Judson Pewther, New York.
In COMPUTE!’s Third Book of Atari, Orson Scott Card explained the keyboard and how to read it using the CH register.
The values listed as “internal code” in Appendix 10 are not the same as those produced at 764. The internal code is the order the characters are stored in the character set. The keycode reflected by 764 is the hardware code, which is altogether different for no reason I’ve been able to ascertain.
Here are some brief examples showing how to use these locations with the disk drive (it already has a handler in place, and we don’t have to write a new one). The CIO call routine can be used in all your disk I/O routines based around these locations.
To check if a sector has data in it:
5 DIM SEC$(128),CHK$(128) 10 DATA 104,32,83,228,96 15 SEC$(1)=CHR$(0):SEC$(128)=SEC$:SEC$(2)=SEC$:CHK$(1)=CHR$(0):CHK$(128)=CHK$:CHK$(2)=CHK$ 16 REM SETS UP ARRAY SPACE AND FILLS IT 17 REM CHK$ IS FULL OF BLANK SPACES - CONTENTS OF UNUSED SECTORS 20 FOR N=1536 TO 1540:READ X:POKE N,X:NEXT N 25 REM THIS POKES THE CIO CALL UP ROUTINE INTO PAGE SIX 30 POKE 769,1:POKE 770,82 35 REM THIS POKES THE DRIVE NUMBER (1) AND READ FUNCTION (82) 40 PRINT "ENTER A SECTOR NUMBER TO CHECK":INPUT SNUM 45 IF SNUM<0 OR SNUM>720 THEN 40:REM VALIDITY CHECK ON NUMBERS 50 POKE 778,SNUM-(INT(SNUM/256)*256):POKE 779,INT(SNUM/256) 51 REM POKES LSB, MSB OF SECTOR INTO 778, 779 55 BUFFER=ADR(SEC$):BUFFL=BUFFER-(INT(BUFFER/256)*256):BUFFH=INT(BUFFER/256) 56 POKE 772,BUFFL:POKE 773,BUFFH 57 REM POKE ADDRESS OF SEC$ INTO BUFFER ADDRESS 60 Z=USR(1536):REM CALL UP CIO ROUTINE 70 IF SEC$=CHK$ THEN PRINT "NO DATA IN SECTOR":GOTO 40 80 PRINT "SECTOR HAS DATA":GOTO 40
Another method to check for sector use is to see if byte 125 ($7D) shows a sector has data in it; if not zero, it is being used (it records the number of bytes used in a sector). You can examine the sector contents by adding PRINT SEC$ after the read.
PRINT PEEK(771) after reading a sector will display the status; 1 means good, any other number means bad. Check for bad sectors by PEEKing here after any sector read.
The above routine with a few modifications will print a list of all the sectors on a disk with data in them (best directed to your printer, but I use the screen display in the example below). This is a slow and inelegant routine, but you can easily rework it for your own use.
5 DIM SEC$(128),CHK$(128),CNT(720) 10 DATA 104,32,83,228,96 15 SEC$(1)=CHR$(0):SEC$(128)=SEC$:SEC$(2)=SEC$:CHK$(1)=CHR$(0):CHK$(128)=CHK$:CHK$(2)=CHK$ 16 REM SETS UP ARRAY SPACE AND FILLS IT 17 REM CHK$ IS FULL OF BLANK SPACES - CONTENTS OF UNUSED SECTORS 18 FOR LOOP=0 TO 720:CNT(LOOP)=0:REM EMPTY ARRAY 20 FOR N=1536 TO 1540:READ X:POKE N,X:NEXT N 25 REM THIS 30 POKE 769,1:POKE 770,82 35 TRAP 100 40 FOR SNUM=1 TO 720 50 POKE 778,SNUM-(INT(SNUM/256)*256):POKE 779,INT(SNUM/256) 51 REM POKES LSB, MSB OF SECTOR INTO 778, 779 55 BUFFER=ADR(SEC$):BUFFL=BUFFER-(INT(BUFFER/256)*256):BUFFH=INT(BUFFER/256) 56 POKE 772,BUFFL:POKE 773,BUFFH 60 Z=USR(1536) 70 IF SEC$=CHK$ THEN CNT(SNUM)=0:NEXT SNUM:GOTO 100 80 CNT(SNUM)=SNUM:NEXT SNUM 100 FOR LOOP=1 TO 720 110 IF CNT(LOOP)=0 THEN NEXT LOOP:GOTO 150 120 PRINT CNT(LOOP);" ";:NEXT LOOP 150 END
To copy one sector to another, use the routine below. Add a loop routine to copy more than one at a time. This routine copies all 128 bytes, including the three “record” bytes.
1 DIM SEC$(128,Z$(1) 2 REM SPACE FOR SECTOR DATA 5 DATA 104,32,83,228,96 10 FOR N=1536 TO 1540:READ X:POKE N,X:NEXT N 15 REM POKE CIO CALL DATA INTO PAGE SIX 20 PRINT "WHAT SECTOR TO COPY FROM?" 25 INPUT START:IF START<0 OR START>720 THEN 25 30 PRINT "WHAT SECTOR TO COPY TO?" 35 INPUT FINISH:IF FINISH<0 OR FINISH>720 OR FINISH=START THEN 35 40 POKE 770,82:REM READ COMMAND 45 POKE 778,START-(INT(START/256)*256):POKE 779,INT(START/256) 46 REM POKE LSB/MSB OF SECTOR TO COPY 50 LOC=ADR(SEC$):POKE 772,LOC-(INT(LOC/256)*256):POKE 773,INT(LOC/256) 55 REM POKE LSB/MSB OF ADDRESS OF DATA (SEC$) INTO BUFFER ADDRESS 60 A=USR(1536):REM READ SECTOR INTO SEC$ 70 PRINT "PRESS RETURN TO WRITE SECTOR":INPUT Z$ 80 POKE 770,87:REM WRITE COMMAND 85 POKE 778,FINISH-(INT(FINISH/256)*256):POKE 779,INT(FINISH/256) 86 REM POKE LSB/MSB OF SECTOR TO COPY TO 90 A=USR(1536):REM WRITE IT 100 GOTO 20
See Antic magazine, December 1984, for more information about device control. Several magazines have published BASIC programs to edit your disk by sectors, There are also good public domain programs of this sort on the Atari SIG on CompuServe.
Current number of device being used.
Status = 1 means good.
Final baud rate timer value.
IOCB Address Chart Label IOCB0 IOCB1 IOCB2 IOCB3 IOCB4 IOCB5 IOCB6 IOCB7 Use ICHID 832 848 864 880 896 912 928 944 index ICDNO 833 849 865 881 897 913 929 945 dev # ICCOM 834 850 866 882 898 914 930 946 command ICSTA 835 851 867 883 899 915 931 947 status ICBAL/H 836 852 868 884 900 916 932 948 buffer ICPTL/H 838 854 870 886 902 918 934 950 put buf ICBLL/H 840 856 872 888 904 920 936 952 buf len ICAX1 842 858 874 890 906 922 938 954 task # ICAX2 843 859 875 891 907 923 939 955 aux2 ICAX3 844 860 876 892 908 924 940 956 sectorl ICAX4 845 861 877 893 909 925 941 957 sectorh ICAX5 846 862 878 894 910 926 942 958 byte # ICAX6 847 863 879 895 911 927 943 959 aux6
A 254-byte BASIC syntax checking stack; $480 is a BASIC input index, $481 an output index, $482 a program counter.
Any I/O greater than 128 bytes in BASIC will wipe out the bottom 128 bytes in page six. This is because the I/O buffer starts at 1408 ($580), a mere 128 bytes below page six.
Here’s a quick routine to read a disk directory in BASIC:
5 DIM R$(20) 10 OPEN #4,6,0,"D:*.*" 20 INPUT #4,R$:TRAP 60 30 PRINT R$ 40 IF R$(10,16)="SECTORS" THEN 100 50 GOTO 20 60 PRINT R$ 100 CLOSE #4
For a quick method of inputting text into a tile, choose Copy from the DOS menu and answer E:,D:filename. You can now type directly to a disk file. End each line with RETURN and end the file with CTRL-3. You can change with backspace, but each line must have a RETURN in order to be accepted.
Another Digression: Disk Sectors
In a normal disk sector there are 128 bytes, 0 through 127. The last three bytes are reserved by DOS for:
Byte Use 125 Leftmost six bits: file number (0-63, $3F); rightmost two bits: next sector number (high two bits) 126 Next sector number (low eight bits of the sector number) 127 Number of bytes used in this sector (0-125, $7D)
The next sector to read is in a ten-bit number: eight bits from byte 126 ($7E) and the two low bits of 125 ($7D). This means the six leftmost bits remaining in byte 125 can be used only to count up to 63 (which with zero makes for 64 filenames in one directory). This is true when reading linked files, such as BASIC programs or text files; auto-boot programs are usually sequential and are not linked in this manner (nor are the first four boot sectors, the VTOC, or directory sectors). When the next sector number is zero, there are no more sectors to read.
A binary file always begins with 255 ($FF) twice, then four bytes: the LSB and MSB of the start and end addresses, respectively, of the data to follow (that is, if they were 00 A0 00 B0, it would start at $A000 and end at $B000). When a number of bytes are loaded to fulfill the load vector, DOS assumes the next four bytes are more start/end address vectors and will continue to input the following data at the new address unless an EOF (End Of File) is reached. Control is passed back to DOS at the end of a load unless you put a new run address into 736,737 ($2E0, $2E1). You can append a code like E0 02 E1 02 00 A0 to your binary file (four address bytes, followed by the appropriate data — two bytes to fill the two locations specified), which in this case makes the new run address $A000. See COMPUTE’, March 1982.
Can be set greater than 7, but it only wastes memory space.
Stores the drive number for the DUP.SYS file. It you POKE here with the ASCII equivalent of the drive number (for example, POKE 1923,50 for drive 2), when you call DOS from BASIC, DUP.SYS will be loaded trom the drive specified rather than the default D1:. To make a permanent change to your DOS, POKE the appropriate number, go to DOS, and write DOS files to a disk.
POKE with 0 to change only the first of matching filenames in case of duplication error in your directory (normally, Rename changes all files of the same name). POKE with 184 ($B8) to restore. From the OS/A+ manual.
Deallocation bytes of the VTOC and directory; see the next few locations.
LSB of the current directory sector (first of eight reserved sectors). The directory is normally located in sectors 361-368. The default number here is 105 ($69).
MSB of current directory sector. To change the location of the directory, first copy the current sectors to the desired location (see 768 above), then POKE the new location of the first sector into the LSB/MSB bytes. That and the next seven sectors will be recognized as the new directory area. Finally, write the number for the new start sector (sector number/8 + 10) into 3460 ($D84). Leave BASIC and rewrite DOS onto a newly formatted disk. DOS disks with the original directory locations cannot read your directory.
Disk Directories Format of a directory entry: Byte Use 0 Flag: $00 entry new (never used) $01 file opened for I/O $02 file created by DOS 2 $20 file locked $40 file in use (normal) $80 file deleted 1-2 Number of sectors in the file 3-4 Starting sector number (LSB/MSB) 5-12 Filename (space or $20 if blank) 13-15 Extension
LSB of the current VTOC (Volume Table Of Contents — only one sector reserved).
MSB of the VTOC sector, normally sector 360. The VTOC is a bitmap of the disk contents; after the initial status bytes, each of the following bits represents one sector on the disk in sequential order, There are 720 sectors, but sector 0 cannot be accessed by the OS. Sectors 1-4 are reserved as “boot” sectors on a DOS disk, sectors 360-368 are reserved for the VTOC and directory leaving 707 free for files, You can move the VTOC the same way you move the directory.
If you change the directory location (make sure there’s nothing in the new directory location that you don’t mind erasing first). go into the VTOC and deallocate the original directory sectors (write a one into the bits) and write a zero into the bits representing the new location—this prevents them from being overwritten, You can also lock out sectors by deallocating them in the VTOC.
Volume Table of Contents Byte Use 0 DOS code (0 = DOS 2.0) 1-2 Total number of sectors (707; $2C3) 3-4 Number of currently unused sectors 5 Reserved (unused at present) 6-9 Unused 10-99 Bitmap: one bit for each sector (0=in use — locked; 1=unused — free). The leftmost bit of byte 10 ($0A) is sector 0 (see above), the next bit to the right is sector 1, and so on, until the rightmost bit of byte 99 ($63), which is sector 719 ($2CF). 100-127 Unused
There are only 707 sectors counted in bytes 1 and 2 (not 720). since the first 4 are “boot” sectors, then the VTOC and directory take another 9, for a total of 13.
A typical DOS 2.0 VTOC with DOS.SYS and DUP.SYS, but nothing else except the boot, VTOC, and directory sectors in use; it looks like this:
Byte 0 02 C3 02 50 02 00 00 00 8 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 16 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 24 01 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 32 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 40 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 48 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 00 56 7F FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 64 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 72 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 80 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 88 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 96 FF FF FF FF 00 00 00 00 104 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 112 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 120 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
The VTOC is the leftmost bit of byte 55 ($37), and the directory sectors are the remainder of the byte plus the leftmost bit of byte 56 ($38). The leftmost four bits of byte 10 ($0A) are the boot sectors, and the remainder of the bytes up to and including the leftmost seven bits of byte 24 ($18) are in use by DOS and DUP. Remember that the last three bytes in the VTOC and directory are not status bytes.
Disk directories and the VTOC (as well as many other disk mysteries and delights) are explained in detail in Bill Wilkinson’s Inside Atari DOS from COMPUTE! Books, and are somewhat discussed in Atari Software Protection Techniques by George Morrison (Alpha Systems, 1983).
Should read drive type, not tape.
LSB and MSB of the address the warm start routine places in 10 and 11 (DOSVEC). POKE your RESET handler routine address here to always load it back into DOSVEC when RESET is pressed. Point to 6047 ($179F); a USR call to 6047 loads DUP and sends you to the DOS menu.
You can run some machine language programs from within BASIC by typing OPEN #1,4,0,"D:filename" then X=USR(5576). CLOSE the channel afterward if you return to BASIC.
A USR here will cold start the BASIC cartridge. If you’re handy with machine code, you can add commands to BASIC by trapping the keystrokes before they get passed on to the editor. Charles Brannon describes how to do this (with a good program of commands) in COMPUTE!’s Third Book of Atari.
POKE with 255 to quadruple the size of all missiles.
NTSC systems have 60 frames per second and 262 lines per frame; PAL systems have 50 frames and 312 lines. Should read 13 decimal, not 14.
Frequencies are rounded off; they are actually 63.9210 kilohertz, 15.6999 kilohertz, and 1.78979 megahertz. You can use the frequency to calculate the POKEY interrupt frequency by INTFREQ = clock frequency/(2 * (1 + value in AUDF register for that channel)).
COMPUTE!’s Third Book of Atari has articles by Matt Giwer and Fred Tedsen on using POKEs to control the sound effects, the audio channels, and AUDCTL.
For example, random 0 to 9 would be INT(PEEK(53770) *10/256) and 0 to 99 would be INT(PEEK(53770)*100/256).
POKE with zero to blank out screen.
POKE with zero, and VBLANK and system clock are disabled, and shadowing is suspended. See COMPUTE! magazine, June 1983 (p. 254), for a method of trapping the RESET key in BASIC.
See COMPUTE! magazine, June 1983 (p. 226).
Each vector consists of a 15-byte table, 2 bytes each for OPEN, CLOSE, GET byte, PUT byte, Get status, and Special routine addresses, The next 3 bytes are a JMP instruction followed by the address of the initialization routine for that handler. A zero separates handlers (byte 16). Here are the locations for each routine in the table:
Handler OPEN CLOSE GET PUT Status Special JMP E: E400 E402 E404 E406 E408 E40A E40C 58368 58370 58372 58374 58376 58378 58380 S: E410 E412 E414 E416 E418 E41A E41C 58384 58386 58388 58390 58392 58394 58396 K: E420 E422 E424 E426 E428 E42A E42C 58400 58402 58404 58406 58408 58410 58412 P: E430 E432 E434 E436 E438 E43A E43C 58416 58418 58420 58422 58424 58426 58428 C: E440 E442 E444 E446 E448 E44A E44C 58432 58434 58436 58438 58440 58442 58444
Takes its information from the bytes in the lower part of page three ($300) for operation. The vectors between 58448 and 58496 ($E450-$E480) are all three-byte vectors; a JMP instruction followed by an address in LSB/MSB format.
Page 147: IOCB number times 16 in the X register. The X register becomes the CIO channel number. Since the screen is always open for channel 0, when using the screen you make the X register 0 as well. Bill Wilkinson says that to output a single character through the CIO instead of an entire buffer (the normal occurrence), set the buffer length to 0. This forces the I/O to input or output a single character only. See COMPUTE!, January 1985.
Here are the pinouts for the serial I/O jack:
___________________________________ / \ / 2 4 6 8 10 12 \ / \ / 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 \ /___________________________________________\ 1 Clock input 2 Clock output 3 Data input 4 Ground 5 Data output 6 Ground 7 Command 8 Motor control 9 Proceed 10 + 5v dc/Ready 11 Audio input 12 +12v dc 13 Interrupt
Do a USR here to warm start the computer.
Do a USR here to cold start the computer.
Seems to be the same DLI vector address as 512-513.
Graphics modes 9, 10, and 11 are unique to the GTIA chip; the early CTIA chip didn’t have them. Of course, the GTIA is standard now in all later model 400, 800, XL, and XE models. The GTIA modes all use 8138 bytes of RAM, have 80 × 192 full-screen (no text window) resolution, and have no border color. Each pixel is a wide, but short, rectangle with a ratio of 4:1 for width to height. Each pixel uses four bits. Here’s a small chart which summarizes these modes.
GR# Colors SETCOLOR Registers 9 1 (16 lum) 4 712 Use the COLOR command (0-15) for luminance 10 9 0 704 Must be POKEd 1 705 Must be POKEd 2 706 Must be POKEd 3 707 Must be POKEd 4 708 Use COLOR 0 5 709 COLOR 1 6 710 COLOR 2 7 711 COLOR 3 8 712 COLOR 4 (BAK) 11 1 (16 hues) 4 712 Use COLOR command (0-15) for hue
Information on GTIA modes has been published in many books and magazines, including De Re Atari and Your Atari Computer by Poole et al. (a revised edition of the latter is available now). An example of adding a text window to a GTIA screen by way of a DLI was in David Sander’s article in Antic, April 1983.
Most of the information in the first edition of Mapping the Atari applies equally well to the XL and XE lines of computers; only those locations below represent known changes. Atari made several changes to RAM locations, and the OS was almost entirely rewritten in the newer models.
The information here pertains to the 600XL, 800XL, 1200XL, 65XE, and 130XE. Except for the 1200XL, the XL and XE models are virtually identical to each other. There have been changes in the BASIC ROMs, but I have no official word on any changes in the OS, although I have reason to believe there have been some.
For those owners of XL computers who have difficulty using older 800 software, Atari (and several other companies) makes a Translator disk which loads an 800 operating system on top of the XL OS, allowing you to run almost all 800 programs. Ask your local Atari dealer for this disk if you don’t already have it. Side A of the Translator disk permits you to press RESET and usually remain within the older OS; side B doesn’t have this code patch, so it reboots the XL OS when RESET is pressed. A public domain translator called FIXXL is also available on CompuServe. A hardware solution is available: the XL BOSS chip from Allen MacroWare.
The DDT subprogram in OSS’s MAC/65 assembler is an excellent tool for examining memory, especially since it gives you the option of ASCII display and disassembly of visible memory. It allows you to write directly to memory or jump to any location. I used it constantly while writing this chapter.
Unless otherwise noted, this material pertains to all XL and XE models (as does much of the earlier section of the book). RAM locations and interrupt and OS vectors will remain the same in all systems; however, the locations and contents of routines they point to may differ among computers. Not all of the OS ROM locations described here will be the same in the 1200XL. Some of the changes here are to vec tors, not to functions. References to function keys (F1 to F4) and LEDs are for 1200XL users only. My original 1200XL memory map appeared in COMPUTE!’s Third Book of Atari.
Most RAM and hardware locations belonging to the GTIA, ANTIC, POKEY, and PIA chips (53248-55295; $D000-$D7FF except for PORTB) have generally not changed. The floating-point package remains at 55296-57343 ($D800-$DFFF), but routines have been altered within it. The major change in the OS was the shifting of interrupt handlers from high ROM into the area previously unused between 49152 and 52223 ($C000-$CBFF) and the addition of the international character set at 52224-53247 ($CC00-$CFFF).
Atari promises the XE series will maintain 100 percent compatibility with the XL series — as long as the software obeys the “rules” and sticks to official, published vectors and entry points and doesn’t try to take advantage of some ROM routine to save a few bytes (see 62026 and 62128 below). The OS in the XE series is the same as that in the 800XL, at least at the time of this writing. When the ROM routine gets moved — the software crashes. Don’t blame Atari; they’ve published this material since day one. If developers don’t pay attention, it’s not Atari’s fault.
The following registers have been completely deleted from the XL/XE, and other uses have been found for the location (previous 400/800 locations given):
Used by the Atari in-house debugging programs and OS on power-up.
Used during power-up routines for self-testing; checks for bad memory bytes; zero means memory failure.
Command flag for 835 and 1030 modems set to any nonzero number to pass commands to the modem. Used to be TSTDAT.
Points to 6047 ($179F).
Points to 5440 ($1540).
Intended OS use as buffer pointers; currently unused.
Temporary buffers for the general-purpose peripheral handler loader routines. The general-purpose handler routines help the OS deal with new handlers and peripherals which load their own handlers. All locations marked as being used by the peripheral handler or loader are tar OS use only; do not use them.
Temporary storage registers for general-purpose peripheral handler loader.
The 1200XL has four redefinable function keys. FKDEF points (LSB/MSB) to their definition table — an eight-byte table for keys F1 to F4 and then SHIFT-F1 to SHIFT-F4. Each byte is assigned a value corresponding to an internal (not ASCII) code. The keys themselves are values 138-141 ($8A-$8D), but you must not assign a key its own value since it generates an endless loop. Initially points to 64529 ($FC11).
The function keys perform the following activities:
Key Combination Function F1 Cursor up (ATASCII 28; $1C) F2 Cursor down (29; $1D) F3 Cursor left (30; $1E) F4 Cursor right (31; $1F) With SHIFT F1 Home (cursor to upper left, 28; $1C) F2 Cursor to lower-left corner (29; $1D) F3 Cursor to start of physical line (30; $1E) F4 Cursor to right end of physical line (31; $1F) With CTRL F1 Keyboard enable/disable toggle (not con- sole keys) F2 Screen display enable/disable F3 Key click sound enable/disable F4 Domestic/international character set toggle
Function keys are ignored with both a SHIFT and CTRL combination. You cannot redefine CTRL-function key definitions.
Flag to determine PAL or NTSC version of the display handler, previously at 53268 ($D014). Zero means North American standard.
Pointer (LSB/MSB) to the keyboard definition table, initialized to 64337 ($FB51), where the system keyboard table resides. You can redefine the keyboard by writing a 192-byte table and POKEing its address here. The table consists of three 64-byte portions: lowercase keys, SHIFTed keys, and CTRL keys. The system table has the following assignments:
Byte Key Byte Key 00 1 32 , 01 j 33 Space 02 ; 34 . 03 F1 (1200XL) 35 n 04 F2 (1200XL) 36 (128) 05 k 37 m 06 + 38 / 07 * 39 Inverse key (114) 08 o 40 r 09 (128; see below) 41 (128) 10 p 42 e 11 u 43 y 12 RETURN 44 TAB 13 i 45 t 14 - 46 w 15 = 47 q 16 v 48 9 17 HELP (128) 49 (128) 18 c 50 0 19 F3 (1200XL) 51 7 20 F4 (1200XL) 52 BACKSPACE 21 b 53 8 22 x 54 < 23 z 55 > 24 4 56 f 25 (128) 57 h 26 3 58 d 27 6 59 (128) 28 ESC 60 CAPS (130) 29 5 61 g 30 2 62 s 31 1 63 a
The next 64 bytes contain the shifted characters (for example, a shifted is A, 5 shifted is %; look at the upper characters on your keyboard). The following 64 are CTRL key characters (many graphics characters), You have to create a table for all 192 bytes, although you need change key assignments only for a specific few. Use the ATASCII values when writing the table.
Several values have specific meaning to the keyboard decoder on the XL:
Dec/Hex Use 128/80 Not used; invalid combination 129/81 Inverse output 130/82 Upper/lowercase toggle 131/83 CAPS lock 132/84 CTRL key lock 133/85 End of file (EOF) 137/89 Keyboard click toggle 138-141/8A-8D Function keys F1-F4 (1200XL only) or: cursor up (ATASCII 28; $1C) cursor down (ATASCII 30; $1D) cursor left (ATASCII 31; $1E) cursor right (ATASCII 32; $1F) 142/8E Cursor home (upper-left screen corner) 143/8F Cursor to bottom-left corner 144/90 Cursor to left margin (1200) 145/91 Cursor to right margin (1200)
You can’t redefine BREAK, SHIFT, CTRL, or the console keys (nor the CTRL-function key assignments on the 1200XL). The 1200XL Addenda gives a Dvorak keyboard assignment easily written into memory, The system table address is returned to RAM on power-up or RESET.
Points to 7676 ($1DFC).
The locations of the vectors and their functions remain the same, but they now point to different locations in the OS memory:
Vector Hex Label Points to 512,513 200,201 VDSLST 49358 ($C0CE) 514,515 202,203 VPRCED 49357 ($C0CD) 516,517 204,205 VINTER 49357 ($C0CD) 518,519 206,207 VBREAK 49357 ($C0CD) 520,521 208,209 VKEYBD 64537 ($FC19) 522,523 20A,20B VSERIN 6691 ($1A23) 524,525 20C,20D VSEROR 6630 ($19E6) 526,527 20E,20F VSEROC 60140 ($EAEC) 528,529 210,211 VTIMR1 49357 ($C0CD) 530,531 212,213 VTIMR2 49357 ($C0CD) 532,533 214,215 VTIMR3 49357 ($C0CD) 534,535 216,217 VIMIRQ 49200 ($C030) 546,547 222,223 VVBLKI 49378 ($C0E2) 548,549 224,225 VVBLKD 49802 ($C28A) 550,551 226,227 CDTMA1 60433 ($EC11)
The OS was rewritten in the XL/XE models, moving the interrupt handlers down into the previously unused region 49152-53247 ($C000-$CFFF).
Temporary counter for peripheral handler loader.
Now points to 49298 ($C092).
Previously spare bytes, now the address of the relocatable loader routine in the 1200XL and vector for parallel bus interrupt requests on all XL/XEs except 1200XL (where it points to a routine at 51566; $C96E) — the vector for any initialized generic parallel device.
Relocatable loader routine variable for record length.
Reserved (unused) on the 1200XL.
Shadow mask for the device selection register at 53759 ($D1FF; active only when the OS deselects the floating-point ROM by writing to that address). You can run up to eight parallel devices through the bus; each bit in this register corresponds to one device. The mask must be set for the proper device before the OS will allow an IRQ to be sent to that device.
Shadow for parallel bus register; each bit represents one of eight parallel devices. Allows the OS to service VBIs while running the device masked by this bit.
Parallel bus interrupt mask; allows OS to service IRQs from the device masked by the bit in this register. See above.
Relocatable loader relative address.
One-byte temporary storage registers for relocatable loader.
Spare bytes, reserved for future use.
Alternate character set pointer for the 1200XL, initialized to 204 ($CC) to point to the international character set as the next set to display on the CTRL-F4 toggle. The XL has two internal character sets, one at 52224 ($CC00) and the other at 57344 ($E000).
Fine-scroll temporary register.
Keyboard disable. POKE with 255 to disable the keyboard, 0 to reenable. You have to press RESET (all XL/XEs except 1200XL) to get control back if you are locked out; 1200XL users can press CTRL-F1 (toggles it on and off; LED 1 is on when the keyboard is disabled).
Fine-scroll enable for graphics mode 0 (text); POKE with 0 for coarse scrolling (the default) and 255 ($FF) for fine scrolling. Follow the POKE with GR.0 or an OPEN for device E:. Try listing a long program — it’s slow and smooth! The display list for fine scrolling is one byte longer than for coarse scrolling. The OS places the address (64708; $FCC4) of a Display List Interrupt (DLI) at 512, 513 ($200,201), replacing any you might have placed there. The color register at 53271 ($D017) is altered for the last visible screen line.
If you enable fine scrolling and go immediately to DOS, you’ll see that it’s still enabled when you do a copy to screen or disk directory. Jerry White wrote an article demonstrating fine scrolling and other XL features in Analog, February 1984.
The XL has only two ports, so only paddles 0-3 are active.
No longer in use since there are ports only for sticks 0 and 1. The OS VBLANK process now copies the PORTA joystick (0-1) and paddle (0-3) values into the shadow registers for PORTB so that STICK0 affects both STICK0 and STICK2, STICK1 affects STICK1 and STICK3, PADDL0 affects PADDLE0 and PADDL4, and so on.
No longer in use (see PADDL4-7).
No longer in use (see STICK2-3).
High-byte register for relocatable loader routine.
Temporary jump vector; unused.
Used by relocatable loader; new address vector.
Number of command retries; moved from 54 ($36) in the 400/800.
Number of device retries; moved from 55 ($37) in the 400/800.
Run address register for relocatable loader routine.
Used by relocatable loader routines.
Used by relocatable loader routines.
Used by relocatable loader routines.
Used by relocatable loader routines.
Used by relocatable loader routines.
Disk sector size register; default of 128 ($80) bytes, but can be altered to a length from 0 to 65535 ($FFFF). Your drive may not support other sizes, however.
Interrupt service routine address; unused.
Auto-delay rate; the time elapsed before keyboard repeat begins. Initially set at 48 ($30; $28 for PAL machines) for 0.8 seconds; you can POKE it with the number of VBLANK intervals (1/60 second each) before repeat begins. A value of 60 would be a one-second delay. A value of 0 means no repeat.
The rate of the repeat; default is 6, which means ten characters per second (one each six VBLANK intervals after the delay above). POKE with the number of VBLANK intervals between repeats; with a value of 1, you get 60 characters per second (50 on PAL systems)! A value of 0 provides one key repeat only per press.
This is the keyboard click disable register; POKE with any non-zero number to disable the annoying keyboard sound produced through your TV. POKE again with 0 to enable the sound. On the 1200XL, CTRL-F3 toggles the sound as well.
Register to hold the HELP key status; 17 is HELP has been pressed alone, 81 means it has been pressed with SHIFT, and 145 with CTRL. This register can be cleared under program control only by POKEing it with 0. The OS ignores it otherwise.
This saves the DMA value from 559 ($22F) on the 1200XL when CTRL-F2 is pressed to disable the screen. On all XL/XEs except the 1200XL, if you POKE 559,0 to turn off the screen, the value is not saved in 733. However, if you POKE 733 with the DMA value (usually 34) at the next keystroke, the screen will automatically be activated again.
Print buffer pointer; moved from 29 ($1D) on the 400/800.
Print buffer size; moved from 30 ($1E) on the 400/800.
Relocatable loader routine handler flag.
Additional device status registers to contain information returned to the computer by the peripheral after the new type 3 and 4 polls. The bytes contain:
746/747 LSB/MSB of the handler size (must be an even number) 748 Device SIO address to be used for loading 749 Peripheral revision number
The new poll types are fully explained in the 1200XL operating system manual; earlier poll types are described in the 400/800 hardware manual. Basically, type 3 is an “are you there?” poll (device address $4F, command byte $40, AUX1 $4F, AUX2 $4F, checksum normal), and poll 4 is a null poll (values $4F, $40, $4E and $4E, respectively; checksum normal).
Character set select; default of 224. The international set can be selected by POKE 756,204 ($CC). On the 1200XL, the value in CHBAS is switched with that in CHSALT (619; $26B) whenever CTRL-F4 is used to toggle the alternate character set. The values in the two registers are swapped and LED 2 is lit.
Moved from 96 ($60) in the 400/800.
Moved from 97,98 ($61,$62) in the 400/800.
Moved from 121 ($79) in the 400/800.
Moved from 122 ($7A) in the 400/800.
Storage for hardware option jumpers on the 1200XL, intended to tell the OS how the system is configured; if bit 0 (POT 4) is not set (0), then the self-test will run. Bits 1-7 are unused. Used only in the 1200XL.
One-byte temporary storage register.
Moved from 28 ($1C) in the 400/800. Same initial value (30).
Power-up and reset validation registers 1-3. Used on warm start to verify the integrity of memory. The OS initializes these locations to 92 ($5C), 147 ($93), and 37 ($25), respectively. When RESET is pressed, these bytes are checked, and it they are the same as initialized, a warm start is done; otherwise, a cold start occurs.
To send your output to the printer, POKE 838,202 and POKE 839,254. To turn off the printer and send everything back to the screen, POKE 838,175 and POKE 839,242. This program from Matt Ratcliff allows you to toggle output between printer and screen by pressing SELECT (it works equally well on the 400/800):
10 DIM A$(1):CONSOL=53279:GRAPHICS 0:IOCB0E=838 20 PHDLR=58422 30 EHDLR=58374 40 PL=PEEK(PHDLR):PH=PEEK(PHDLR+1) 50 EL=PEEK(EHDLR):EH=PEEK(EHDLR+1) 60 PRINT "Text will print continuously." 70 PRINT "Press SELECT to toggle output" 80 PRINT "between printer and screen.":? 90 PRINT "Get printer ready and press RETURN" 100 INPUT A$:I=1:DIR=0 110 PRINT I;" Press select to change output.":I=I+1 120 IF PEEK(CONSOL)<>5 THEN 110 130 IF DIR THEN POKE IOCB0E,EL:POKE IOCB0E+1,EH 140 IF NOT DIR THEN POKE IOCB0E,PL:POKE IOCB0E+1,PH 150 DIR= NOT DIR 160 IF PEEK(CONSOL)<>7 THEN 160 170 GOTO 110
Screen editor register; cleared on entry to the “put byte” routine, the editor changes keycodes 142-145 ($8E-$91) to 28-31 ($1C-$1F; see 121; $79) and sets SUPERF to nonzero.
Moved from 74 ($4A) in the 400/800.
Moved from 75 ($4B) in the 400/800.
Cartridge checksum. A checksum of page one of the cartridge. The checksum is recalculated each VBLANK and checked against this register. If not the same, the OS assumes the cartridge isn’t there any more (was pulled out) and does a cold start; 1200XL only.
Screen open error flag; if zero, then no error, if nonzero, then OS can’t initialize the screen editor.
Reserved for OS variables; on power-up or cold start, all variables between 1005 and 1023 ($3ED-$3FF), inclusive, are set to zero, but are left unchanged on warm start.
Shadow of current status of BASIC. Zero means ROM BASIC is enabled; nonzero means it’s not. Must be in sync with disabling of ROM BASIC. To disable BASIC, set BASICF to nonzero, then do a warm start (press RESET); DOS will load and tell you there is no cartridge present when you try to return to BASIC.
Cartridge interlock register; the complement of BASICF, above. It reads 1 when an external cartridge is installed, 0 when not (or ROM BASIC is in use). The value of TRIG3 (53267; $D103) is loaded here by the OS initialization routine. If at any time, the external cartridge is pulled, the system will crash.
Relocatable handler chain use; allows chaining of portions of handler routines.
Used by DOS when loaded; otherwise available as free RAM.
If you PEEK here and get 76 ($4C), you have an early version of DOS 3 (the later version will read 78). To correct some errors in the earlier FMS files, type this in:
10 FOR N=1 TO 9:READ A,B:POKE A,B:NEXT N 20 DATA 3889,78,3923,78,3943,78,3929,76,3895,76 30 DATA 3901,77,3935,77,3955,77,2117,240
Better yet, get DOS 2.5 from Atari (supports double-density and the 130XE RAMdisk). DOS 3.0 saves in blocks, not sectors — of a minimum 1000 bytes per block. If you write a program 1001 bytes long, it saves 2000 bytes, wasting 999 bytes on your disk.
Self-test ROM when enabled, controlled by bit 7 of PORTB (54017; $D301). The self-test code is in a special ROM area underneath the GTIA, POKEY, ANTIC chips area (starting at 53248; $D3000) and is moved (remapped) here when you type BYE in BASIC or when you POKE PORTB with the right value and JMP (or USR) to the initialization vector (see 58481; $E471 and 58496-58499; $E480-$E483). RAM when self-test isn’t enabled.
Display list and screen RAM, moved into lower memory if a cartridge is 16K (using RAM from 32767 to 49151 as well).
If you PEEK here and get 96 ($60), you have the BASIC Revision B ROMs. What you need is Revision C. B stands for Bugs! See Appendix 13 on enhancements and bugs. If you get 234 ($EA), you have Revision C. From Matt Ratcliff.
You can turn BASIC off when you go to DOS by POKEing 1016 ($3F8), then pressing RESET. The problem is to turn it back on again from DOS rather than rebooting the system. There is a public domain program by Matt Ratcliff on the Gateway BBS which does this for you.
Atari modified the new XL/XE ROMs since Revision B. Atari maintained the handler and interrupt vectors, although the routines they point to changed between versions.
Atari did produce a listed source code for the XL OS, although for some reason it was never published for public sale as it was intended. It may be available now through Atari — write and ask for it. It is an excellent 500+ page resource document.
OS ROM. In the 400/800, the block between 49152 and 53247 was unused; now the area holds many of the interrupt handlers (vectored here from page two). Some 400/800 software checks for certain values in these locations and won’t run if the value is not found. Use the Translator disk in that case (with the 400/800 OS installed; the area between $C000 and $CEFF becomes user-accessible RAM). The area between 52069 ($CB65) and 52223 ($CBFF) is empty (all zeros).
A lot of interrupts are set to jump to 49357 or 49358 ($C0CD or $C0CE). The former contains a PLA statement followed by an RTI. The net result is a simple return back into the program without any other activity taking place.
Bytes 49152-49163 ($C000-$C00B) are used to identify the computer and the ROM in the $C000-$DFFF block:
Byte Use 49152-3/C000-1 Checksum (LSB/MSB) of all the bytes in ROM except the checksum bytes themselves. 49154/C002 Revision date, stored in the form DDMMYY. This is DD, day, usually $10. 49155/C003 Revision date, month; usually $05. 49156/C004 Revision date, year; usually $83. 49157/C005 Reserved option byte; reads zero for the 1200, 800XL, and 130XE. 49158/C006 Part number in the form AANNNNNN; AA is an ASCII character and NNNNNN is a four-bit BCD digit. This is byte A1. 49159-62/C007-A Part number, bytes A2, N1-N6 (each byte has two N values of four bits each). 49163/C00B Revision number. My 800XL and 130XE say 2. 49164/C00C Interrupt handler initialization 49176/C018 NMI intitialization
Interrupt handlers and other routines in the $C000 block:
Entry Handler or Use 49196/C02C IRQ processor 49298/C092 BREAK key IRQ 49312/C0A0 Continue IRQ processing 49359/C0CF Table of IRQ types and offsets (16 bytes) 49378/C0E2 Immediate VBLANK NMI processing 49743/C24F Process countdown timer 1 expiration 49890/C2E2 Process countdown timer 2 expiration 49749/C255 Decrement countdown timer 49778/C272 Set VBLANK parameters 49802/C28A Process deferred VBLANK NMI 49808/C290 Perform warm start 49834/C2AA Process RESET 49864/C2C8 Perform cold start 49866/C2CA Preset memory (cold and warm start continuation) 50217/C429 Initialize cartridge software 50220/C42C Process ACMI interrupt 50237/C43D BOOT ERROR message 50248/C448 Screen editor specification (E:) 50251/C44B Table of interrupt handler vectors (same or- der as RAM vectors at 512-549 ($200-$225) 50289/C471 Miscellaneous initialization routines: OP- TION key status checked at 50330 ($C49A); BASIC enabled at 50337 ($C4A1) 50394/C4DA Hardware initialization 50485/C535 Software and RAM variable initialization 50571/C58B Attempt disk boot 50619/C5BB Boot and initialize disk 50633/C5C9 Complete boot and initialize 50729/C629 Execute boot loader 50747/C63B Initialize booted software 50750/C63E Display BOOT ERROR message 50777/C659 Get next sector routine 50798/C66E Attempt cassette boot 50851/C6A3 Initialize DIO (disk I/O) 50867/C6B3 Disk I/O (DIO) 51002/C73A Set buffer address 51013/C745 Relocate relocatable routine to new address 51093/C795 Handle end record type 51151/C7CF Get byte 51154/C7D2 Execute run at address 51157/C7D5 Handle text record 51281/C851 Relocate text into memory 51309/C86D Handle word reference record type 51346/C892 Handle low-byte and one-byte record type 51452/C8FC Select and execute self-test 51468/C90C Initialize generic parallel device 51507/C933 PIO—parallel device I/O; PIO vector tables (see 58368; $E400) begin at 51601 ($C991) 51631/C9AF Select next parallel device 51658/C9CA Invoke parallel device handler 51753/CA29 Load and initialize peripheral handler 51799/CA57 Start of self-test offsets and text (uses hard- ware values for character display) 52054/CB56 Checksum linkage table
International character set, assembled in the same manner as the standard character set at 57344 ($E000). There are two character sets in the XL series, and you can switch between them by POKE 756,224 (standard) or POKE 756,204 (international).
If you hold down the OPTION key when booting an application on the XL, you disable BASIC (but no other cartridge), allowing the memory space to be used for applications, You generally need to keep the key held down only for the first few seconds of the boot.
Unused in both the 400/800 and XL models by the OS, this area is switched out when an external device connected to the expansion bus is selected and the device memory switched in. The situation is reversed when the device I/O is completed.
Locations Hex Use 53504-53758 D100-D1FE Device registers 53504 D100 Hardware get and put register (HWGET, HWPUT); data from the device on the bus is stored here. 53505 D101 Hardware reset and status reg- ister (HWRSET for write—this re- sets the get/put register; HWSTAT for read). 53759 D1FF Hardware select register, shad- owed by byte 583 ($247). Bit 0 is device 0, bit 1 device 1, and so on. Writing to this byte de- selects the FP ROM and selects the device ROM (try looking at it and subsequent locations with MAC/65’s DDT or a similar tool while altering $D1FF).
Since the XL and XE series no longer have a PORT B (on the 400/800 this controls joystick ports 3 and 4), this register is used for LED control (1200XL only) and memory management.
You can disable the ROM between 49152-53247 ($C000-$CFFF) and 55296-65535 ($D800-$FFFF) by setting bit 0 to 0 (the ROM area becomes RAM; note that the area between $D000 and $D7FF remains intact). However, unless another OS has been provided, the system will crash at the next interrupt (1/60 second later!), so you need to disable the interrupts first.
Bit 1 controls BASIC; if 0, BASIC is enabled, if 1, it is disabled and the 8K RAM space enabled for program use. If you disable BASIC within a BASIC program, you lock up. Disable BASIC during a boot operation by holding down the OPTION key.
Bits 2 and 3 control the 1200XL LEDs; 0 means on, 1 means off. LED 1 means the keyboard is disabled; LED 2 means the international character set is selected. In the 130XE, these bits are used for bank switching 16K blocks of RAM. The 130XE allows you to use the extra memory as video memory or program/ data memory. See the section on memory management in the 130XE at the end of this chapter.
Bits 4-6 are reserved (unused) in the XL and 65XE. Bits 4 and 5 in the 130XE are used to enable bank switching (see below).
Bit 7 controls the RAM region 20480-22527 ($5000-$57FF), normally enabled 1). When disabled 0), the OS ROM in that area is enabled and access provided to the self-test code moved from 53248-55295 ($D000-$D7FF).
Try this: POKE 54017,PEEK(54017)-128 to enable the self-test ROM. Now type X=USR(20480). The self-test screen appears. The RAM is reset on power-up or warm start. Of course, you can always simply type BYE to enter the test routines as well.
Here’s a program from Joe Miller of Koala Technologies which copies portions (skips the $D000-$D7FF block) of the OS into RAM, disables the ROM, then moves the copied portion back:
100 REM RAMROM - Install RAM-based 110 REM OS in an XL computer 120 REM by Joe Miller 130 REM March 23, 1985 190 PRINT "MOVING OS INTO RAM" 200 FOR I=1536 TO 1635 210 READ B:POKE I,B:NEXT I 220 B=USR(1536) 230 PRINT CHR$(125) 240 PRINT "RAM OS INSTALLED" 250 PRINT "PRESS RETURN TO TEST IT" 260 PRINT :PRINT :PRINT 270 PRINT "POKE 57344,1" 275 PRINT " $E000=1":PRINT 280 PRINT "POKE 57344,0" 290 POSITION 1,4 300 DATA 169,0,133,203,133,205,169 310 DATA 192,133,204,169,64,133,206 320 DATA 160,0,177,203,145,205,200 330 DATA 208,249,230,206,230,204,240 340 DATA 12,165,204,201,208,208,237 350 DATA 169,216,133,204,208,231,8 360 DATA 120,173,14,212,72,169,0 370 DATA 141,14,212,173,1,211,41 380 DATA 254,141,1,211,169,192,133 390 DATA 206,169,64,133,204,177,203 400 DATA 145,205,200,208,249,230,204 410 DATA 230,206,240,12,165,206,201 420 DATA 208,208,237,169,216,133,206 430 DATA 208,231,104,141,14,212,40 440 DATA 104,96
You can make this into a machine language AUTORUN.SYS file by changing the loop to 1634, removing the number 104 in line 440, and deleting the USR call in line 220. Go to DOS and do a binary save (option K) at addresses $600-$662, with a run address of $600. This will change your ROM OS into a RAM OS every time you boot up that disk. Pressing RESET switches the OS back to ROM. The machine language source code for this short program (also by Joe Miller) is included here because I felt it important for machine language programmers to see how this is done:
;Move XL OS ROM into RAM ; ;RAMROM--Installs the XL ROM-based ; OS in RAM at the same address ; space. This is useful for ; making small patches to the ; OS or for experimenting with ; new design concepts, such as ; multitasking, window ; management, etc. ; ; By Joe Miller. ; ;This version is configured ;as an AUTORUN.SYS file. ; SOURCE EQU $CB ;zero page usage DEST EQU SOURCE+2 START EQU $0600 ;START address OSROM EQU $C000 ;address of OS ROM start OSRAM EQU $4000 ;address of ROM destination NMIEN EQU $D40E ;NMI enable register PORTB EQU $D301 ;memory mgt control latch ORG START LDA #low OSROM STA SOURCE STA DEST ;initialize copy addrs LDA #high OSROM STA SOURCE+1 LDA #high OSRAM STA DEST+1 LDY #0 ;Repeat Pass1 LDA (SOURCE),Y ;copy ROM to RAM STA (DEST),Y INY BNE Pass1 INC DEST+1 INC SOURCE+1 BEQ Swap ;If done LDA SOURCE+1 CMP #$D0 BNE Pass1 ;skip 2K block at $D000 LDA #$D8 STA SOURCE+1 BNE Pass1 ;Until SOURCE = $0000 Swap PHP ;save processor status SEI ;disable IRQs LDA NMIEN PHA ;save NMIEN LDA #0 STA NMIEN ;disable NMIs LDA PORTB AND #$FE ;turn off ROMs STA PORTB ;(leaving BASIC unchanged!) LDA #high OSROM STA DEST+1 ;set up block copy LDA #high OSRAM STA SOURCE+1 ;Repeat Pass2 LDA (SOURCE),Y ;move RAM OS to proper address STA (DEST),Y INY BNE Pass2 INC SOURCE+1 ;move to next page INC DEST+1 BEQ Enable ;If complete LDA DEST+1 CMP #$D0 BNE Pass2 ;skip block at $D000 LDA #$D8 STA DEST+1 BNE Pass2 ;Until DEST = $000 Enable PLA STA NMIEN ;reestablish NMI mask PLP ;reenable IRQs RTS END START
A sophisticated program called “RamMaster,” by Matt Ratcliff, is available free through the Gateway BBS in St. Louis, Missouri. It not only creates a RAM OS, but it has a trap to keep the OS as RAM even when you press RESET. It also allows you to switch BASIC in and out from DOS. Probably the most elegant solution is the XL BOSS board which allows you to switch in a RAM OS, the older 800 OS, and the XL OS, as well as turn BASIC on or off with a few keypresses. It’s available from Allen MacroWare in Redondo Beach, California.
When you change the OS ROM into RAM, you can change all but a small portion of the OS at 53248-55295 ($D000-$D7FF), since it’s RAM. You could always write an OS, load it into RAM, disable the ROM, and load yours in. You can change the character sets in their original locations rather than having to move them and use more memory. You could rewrite the handlers, interrupts, and other routines — almost anything.
This is exactly what the Translator disk does when it writes the 800 OS into the XL. Boot the Translator and place a regular DOS disk in at the prompt so that BASIC READY comes up. Now type:
10 FOR N=57344 TO 57351 20 READ A:POKE N,A:NEXT N 30 DATA 255,1,1,1,1,1,1,1
You’ll see a “graph pad” screen: You’ve POKEd directly into the character set at $E000, altering the first character (space). This also means that the area from 49152 to 52991 ($C000 to $CEFF) isn’t used — almost 4K of free RAM for player missiles, machine language routines, anything you need it for. Be careful not to run over into the interrupt handlers at 52992 ($CF00).
The PORT B controller on the 400/800; not used since there isn’t one on the XL/XE series.
Unused in both XL and 400/800 models. Any access read or write to this area enables the cartridge control line CCNTL as in the cartridge interface in the 400/800.
Floating-point package; although corrected, the entry point remains the same as in the 400/800. You now get an error if you try to get a LOG or LOG 10 of 0. This area becomes addressable by the device when the OS switches out ROM to perform I/O on a device connected to the expansion slot.
There are several tables built into the FP package:
Address Table 56909/DE4D Power of 10 coefficients 57202/DF72 Logarithm coefficients 57262/DFAE Arctangent coefficients (unused?)
The OS switches the floating point out and switches in the parallel bus interface (PBI) ROM when an external device attached through the bus is selected, switching it back when the I/O is completed. This means an external device can’t use floating point or any software which does (such as BASIC).
The first 26 bytes of the hardware ROM vector area (when OS ROM is deselected) are:
Byte Hex Use 55296/55297 D800/D801 ROM checksum LSB/MSB (optional) 55298 D802 ROM revision number (optional) 55299 D803 ID number (128; $80) 55300 D804 Device type (optional) 55301 D805 JMP instruction ($4C) 55302/55303 D806/D807 I/O vector LSB/MSB 55304 D808 JMP 55305/55306 D809/D80A Interrupt vector LSB/MSB 55307 D80B ID number (145; $91) 55308 D80C Device name in ASCII (optional) 55309/55310 D80D/D80E Open vector LSB-1/MSB 55311/55312 D80F/D810 Close vector LSB-1/MSB 55313/55314 D811/D812 Get byte LSB-1/MSB 55315/55316 D813/D814 Put byte LSB-1/MSB 55317/55318 D815/D816 Status vector LSB-1/MSB 55319/55320 D817/D818 Special vector LSB-1/MSB 55321 D819 JMP 55322/55323 D81A/D81B Init vector LSB/MSB 55324 D81C Unused
On a cold start, the OS polls for parallel devices, and if it finds one, JMPs (through 55321; $D819) to the INIT routine at 55322/55323 ($D81A, $D81B) which places the address of the generic parallel device handler into the handler tables with the device name.
Standard (domestic) character set; default on power-up or RESET; pointed to by 756 ($2F4).
The OS has been considerably rewritten and changed since the 400/800. The ANTIC, PIA, and POKEY chips are the same, but many OS routines have been moved. The vectors in RAM have remained in place for the most part, so software which avails itself of these locations can run on all machines. Always use the vectors when writing software to use OS routines, never the actual routines themselves; they may change, while the vectors will not.
Locations 58368-58495 ($E400-$E47F) still contain the vector tables, but point to different locations than the 400/800 (for more information, refer back to the 400/800 section). The vectors (except JMP) all point to the address of the routine minus 1:
Device & Loc Open Close Get Put Status Special JMP to E: 58368 $E400 EF93 F2D2 F249 F2AF F21D F2C2 EF6E S: 58384 $E410 EF8D F2D2 F17F F1A3 F21D F9AE EF6E K: 58400 SE420 F21D F21D F2FC F22C F21D F22C EF6E P: 58416 $E430 FEC1 FF06 FEC0 FECA FEA2 FEC0 FE99 C: 58432 $E440 FCE5 FDCE FD79 FDB3 FDCB FCE4 FCDB
The JMP vectors in locations 58448-58583 ($E450-$E4D7) remain the same, but point to new vector addresses:
Label Loc JMP to DISKIV E450 C6A3 DISKINV E453 C6B3 CIOV E456 E4DF SIOV E459 C933 SETBV E45C C272 SYSBV E45F C0E2 XITBV E462 C28A SIOINV E465 E95C SENDEV E468 EC17 INTINV E46B C00C CIOINV E46E E4C1 SELFSV E471 F223 (used to be BLKBVD) WARMSV E474 C290 COLDSV E477 C2C8 RBLOKV E47A FD8D CSOPIV E47D FCF7
Several of these locations themselves are JMP locations to other routines, done to maintain compatibility with the older 800 OS.
Some new fixed entry point vectors have been added:
58496/E480 PUPDIV: Entry to power-on display (self-test mode in all XL/XEs except 1200XL; Atari logo screen display in the 1200XL). Try X=USR(58496). Points to 61987 ($F223). 58499/E483 SLFTSV: 1200XL only: entry to self-test mode. Points to 20480 ($5000) (see PORTB above). 58502/E486 PENTV: Entry to the handler uploaded from peripheral or disk. Points to 61116 ($EEBC). 58505/E489 PHUNLV: Entry to uploaded handler unlink. Points to 59669 ($E915). 58508/E48C PHINIV: Entry to uploaded handler initializa- tion. Points to 59544 ($E898).
Entry into the self-test mode by typing BYE in BASIC or X = USR(58481). This used to be the blackboard (Memo Pad) mode — a feature parents used to entertain their children, while keeping them from actually tinkering with the system or programs. In the 1200XL, this is the location of the logo screen. I miss the blackboard mode myself; the self-test isn’t really all that useful. There is no equivalent mode to blackboard in the XL/XE system.
Generic parallel device handler general-purpose vector. You can use this to talk to any expansion port device; move this address into HATABS (794-831; $31A-$33F) along with an appropriate device name such as V: or T:. See the appendix on the expansion bus. There are seven vectors in this table, corresponding to the vector tables at 58348 ($E400).
Blank area (all zeros).
IOCB not OPEN error routine.
The CIO area includes the following routines:
Address Routine 58640/E510 Nonexistent device error 58645/E515 Load peripheral handler for OPEN 58650/E51A Perform CIO command 58687/E53F Execute OPEN command 58716/E55C Initialize IOCB for OPEN 58742/E576 Poll peripheral for OPEN 58748/E57C Execute CLOSE command 58775/E597 Execute STATUS and SPECIAL commands 58802/E5B2 Execute GET command 58910/E610 Execute PUT command 58992/E670 Set status 58994/E672 Complete CIO operation 59029/E695 Compute handler entry point 59067/E6BB Decrement buffer length 59080/E6C8 Decrement buffer pointer 59089/E6D1 Increment buffer pointer 59096/E6D8 Set final buffer length 59114/E6EA Execute handler command 59124/E6F4 Invoke device handler 59135/E6FF Search handler table 59158/E716 Find device handler
Peripheral handler loader. Includes the following routines:
Address Routine 59193/E739 Initialization 59326/E7BE Perform poll 59358/E7DE Load handler 59414/E816 Get byte routine 59443/E833 Get next load block 59485/E85D Search handler chain 59540/E894 Handler warm start initialization 59544/E898 Warm start initialization with chaining 59550/E89E Cold start initialization 59584/E8C0 Initialize handler and update MEMLO 59648/E900 Initialize handler 59669/E915 Handler unlinking
The SIO section includes the following routines:
Address Routine 59740/E95C Initialization 59761/E971 SIO main routine 59946/EA2A Complete SIO operation 59959/EA37 Wait for completion or ACK 60040/EA88 Send buffer to serial bus 60077/EAAD Process serial output ready IRQ 60140/EAEC Process serial output complete 60157/EAFD Receive 60199/EB27 Indicate timeout 60204/EB2C Process serial input ready IRQ 60295/EB87 Set buffer pointers 60317/EB9D Process cassette I/O 60433/EC11 Timer expiration 60439/EC17 Enable SIO send 60480/EC40 Enable SIO receive 60502/EC56 Set for send or receive 60548/EC84 Disable send or receive 60570/EC9A Get device timeout 60585/ECA9 Table of SIO interrupt handlers (six bytes) 60591/ECAF Send to intelligent device 60608/ECC0 Set timer and wait 60616/ECC8 Compute baud rate 60718/ED2E Adjust VCOUNT value 60733/ED3D Set initial baud rate 60871/EDC7 Process BREAK key 60898/EDE2 Set SIO VBLANK parameters
Table of POKEY frequency values (24 bytes).
Table of constant values.
Screen memory and display list tables.
Address Table 60957/EE1D Screen memory allocation 60973/EE2D Display list entry counts 61005/EE4D ANTIC graphics modes 61021/EE5D Display list vulnerability 61037/EE6D Left shift columns 61053/EE7D Mode column counts 61069/EE8D Mode row counts 61085/EE9D Right shift counts 61101/EEAD Display masks
Peripheral handler entry, includes the following routines:
Address Routine 61177/EEF9 PH poll at OPEN 61222/EF26 Put-byte routine for provisionally open IOCB
Initialize screen routine. Includes other screen handler routines:
Address Routine 61326/EF8E Perform screen OPEN 61332/EF94 Perform editor OPEN 61340/EF9C Complete OPEN command 61824/F180 Screen get-byte routine 61839/F18F Get data under cursor 61860/F184 Screen put-byte routine 61828/F184 Check end of line 61898/F1CA Plot point 61929/F1E9 Display 61960/F208 Set exit conditions 61982/F21E Screen STATUS 61997/F22D Screen editor SPECIAL (just RTS) 61998/F22E Screen editor CLOSE 62026/F24A Editor get-byte (see below) 62128/F2B0 Editor put-byte (see below) 62142/F2BE Process character
New location for the “get character” routine (used to be at 63038). If you use the routines for screen display in Machine Language for Beginners, you’ll have to change this address for proper XL operation.
New location for the “put character” routine. See the note in 62026. Several programs make use of an illegal call to the “get character” and “put character” routines, previously at 63038 and 63140 ($F63E and F6A4), now at locations 62026 and 62128 ($F24A and $F2B0), respectively. You may be able to correct some problems in your software by searching for and replacing the older vectors with the new locations.
Ignore character and do keyboard get-byte.
Keyboard GET-BYTE routine. The keyboard handler follows and includes the following routines:
Address Routine 62432/F3E0 Escape character handler 62438/F3E6 Move cursor up 62451/F3F3 Move cursor down 62464/F400 Move cursor left 62474/F40A Move cursor to right margin 62476/F40C Set cursor column 62481/F411 Move cursor point 62491/F41B Move cursor to left margin 62496/F420 Clear screen 62528/F440 Move cursor home (upper-left corner) 62586/F47A Tab character handler 62613/F495 Set tab 62618/F49A Clear tab 62623/F49F Insert character 62677/F4D5 Delete character 62732/F50C Insert line 62752/F52D Delete line 62806/F556 Sound bell 62815/F55F Cursor to bottom 62821/F565 Double-byte double decrement 62825/F569 Store data for fine scrolling 62840/F578 Double-byte single decrement 62880/F5A0 Set scrolling display list entry 62892/F5AC Convert cursor row/column to address 62986/F60A Advance cursor routines 63073/F661 Return with scrolling 63077/F665 Return 63150/F6AE Subtract end point 63164/F6BC Check cursor range routines 63256/F718 Restore old data under cursor
Bitmap routines for the editor and screen handler.
Screen scroll routines.
Buffer count computation routines; various keyboard, editor, and screen follow, including:
Address Routine 63768/F918 Delete line 63804/F93C Check for control character 63820/F94C Save row and column values 63831/F957 Restore row and column 63842/F962 Swap cursor with regular cursor position 63875/F983 Sound key click 63895/F997 Set cursor at left edge 63910/F9A6 Set memory scan counter address 63919/F9AF Perform screen SPECIAL command
Various screen and keyboard tables begin here:
Address Table 64260/FB04 Bit masks 64264/FB08 Default screen colors (PF0-3, BAK) 64269/FB0D Control character routines (each entry is three bytes; control character and two-byte address of processing routine) 64317/FB3D Shifted function key routines (1200XL) 64329/FB49 ATASCII to internal conversion constants 64333/FB4D Internal to ATASCII conversion constants 64337/FB51 Keyboard definition (see below) 64529/FC11 Function key definitions
Start of the 192-byte keyboard definition table; see location 121, 122 ($79, $7A).
Keyboard IRQ processing routines; check and process character, CONTROL-1, HELP key, CONTROL and function keys (1200XL; although the code for function keys remains in the 800XL and XE series)
Process display list interrupt for fine scrolling.
Cassette initialization routine, followed by cassette I/O routines and table of NTSC/PAL constants for file leader length and beep duration.
Printer initialization and I/O routines including:
Address Routine 65218/FEC2 Printer OPEN 65227/FECB Printer put-byte 65261/FEED Fill printer buffer 65270/FEF6 Perform printer put 65287/FF07 Printer CLOSE 65300/FF17 Set up DCB for printer 65348/FF44 Printer timeout from STATUS 65355/FF4B Process print mode
ROM checksum verify routines for first 8K bank.
Verify routines for ROM checksum, second 8K bank, including routines to examine checksum region and table of addresses to verify.
Checksum and identification data for the ROM area 57344-65535 ($E000-$FFFF — see 49152, $C000 for more information):
Byte Use 65518/FFEE Revision date D1 and D2 (four-bit BCD) 65519/FFEF Revision date M1 and M2 65520/FFF0 Revision date Y1 and Y2 65521/FFF1 Option byte; should read 1 for the 1200XL (my 800XL reads 2) 65522-26/FFF2-6 Part number in the form AANNNNNN 65527/FFF7 Revision number (again, mine reads 2) 65528-9/FFF8-9 Checksum, bytes (LSB/MSB)
65527 and 65528 should read 221 ($DD) and 87 ($57) for the 400/800 revision A ROMS; 243 ($F3) and 230 ($E6) for the B ROMS. PAL versions read 214/87 ($D6/$57) and 34/88 ($22/$58), respectively. The 1200XL should read 10 at 65527 for revision A and 11 for revision B. The 600XL should read 1 at 65527, and the 800XL, 2. For the 1200XL, 64728 ($FCD8) should not read 162 ($A2).
Contain NMI, RESET (power-up), and IRQ service vectors, initialized to 49176 ($C018), 49834 ($C2AA), and 49196 ($C02C), respectively.
The XL computers fixed several bugs in the 400/800 and added many enhancements including relocatable handlers, new poll and new graphics modes in BASIC.
Now, the OS inserts an end of line (EOL) character in the printer buffer if there isn’t one already there when you CLOSE the device. You don’t have to force out the last characters in the buffer. Printer numbers P1 through P8 are also accessible now.
When reading either a record that’s too long or one truncated with an end of file (EOF), the OS inserts an EOL into the input buffer to provide at least as much as the buffer can handle without an error, so data isn’t lost.
The screen will clear no matter what the cursor coordinates. The display handler and screen editor no longer clear memory above RAMTOP, so any data such as player/missile graphics you have up there is protected, even when changing graphics modes.
The cassette loading mechanics have been greatly improved by a change in timing values (see the XL manual for details).
The Revision B BASIC ROMs have several awesome bugs in them, pointed out to me by Matt Ratcliff (a fountain of knowledge about the XL) on the Gateway BBS, St. Louis, Missouri. If you PEEK(43234) and get 96, you have the bug-ridden B ROMs; write to Atari and ask them for a new C ROM cartridge.
Here are some of the bugs Matt described: First, BASIC appends 16 useless bytes to the end of a file on saving. This is a cumulative process; each time you load and save the same program, another 16 bytes are appended. This can cause severe problems and errors like 164 — truncated record. Make sure you have nothing good on your disk and try this:
10 PRINT FRE(0):SAVE "D:JUNK":RUN "D:JUNK"
and watch your memory dwindle away, 16 bytes at a time! Eventually, your system will crash.
Now try this: Type CSAVE (even it you don’t have a cassette) and turn up your TV volume — press RETURN after the beeps and listen; you’ll hear the CSAVE tones. When the READY prompt reappears, turn the volume up even more. Hear that? It’s the sound of the load still on! You’ll have to type END or SOUND 0,0,0,0 to get rid of it. CLOAD has the same problem. This is a bug in both versions, not just the B ROMs.
Another problem is the unaccountable error 9 — string not DIMed — occurring on the line where the DIM statement actually resides! When you do too many loads and saves, especially with files 16K or larger, your system will lock up. Don’t fool around; get the new ROM, which is available on cartridge, Write to Atari Customer Relations, 390 Caribbean Drive, Sunnyvale, California 94088. (See Appendix 19 for a temporary fix.)
The 65XE and 130XE use the Revision C ROMs, so you don’t have to worry about these bugs. XL owners can type in Matt’s program from Appendix 19 to cure their woes until they get the proper chips or cartridge.
The most exciting new feature on the XL computers is probably the least heralded and the most unused: the parallel expansion bus port (PBI) on the back of the machines. It provides direct, unbuffered access to all of the address, data, and control lines, allowing the use of high-speed peripherals (fast parallel I/O disk drives, hard disks, and custom I/O devices). The April 1985 issue of Analog magazine has an article by Michael Barton on adding additional memory to his 600XL via the expansion port. Antic ran a special four-part series by Earl Rice on the bus from January to April 1985. The bus connector looks like this:
Top Pin Pin Bottom Ground GND 1 2 External select Address output A0 3 4 A1 A2 5 6 A3 A4 7 8 A5 A6 9 10 GND A7 11 12 A8 A9 13 14 A10 A11 15 16 A12 A13 17 18 A14 GND 19 20 A15 Data lines D0 21 22 D1 (Bidirectional) D2 23 24 D3 D4 25 26 D5 D6 27 28 D7 GND 29 30 GND Phase 2 clock output 31 32 GND Reserved NC 33 34 Reset output Interrupt request (IRQ) 35 36 Ready input NC 37 38 External decoder output NC 39 40 Refresh output Column address output 41 42 GND Math pack disable input 43 44 Row addr strobe GND 45 46 Latch read/write out (+5v dc?) NC 47 48 NC (+5v dc?) Audio input 49 50 GND
Looking at the bus from the back, it looks like this:
TOP 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 ┌───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ │ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . │ │ │ │ │ │ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . │ └───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘ 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 BOTTOM
The expansion bus is a complex subject — enough for a whole book. Refer to Rice’s articles which cover the bus in greater detail. The XE continues the parallel bus, but improves it with a clock line and built-in +/-5v dc current, (Barton, in his article in Analog, says pins 47 and 48 are already 5v dc on the XL bus.)
On the 130XE, the parallel bus is called the enhanced cartridge interface — ECI — basically, a 14-pin extension to the cartridge slot which allows external devices to connect to the machine’s address and data bus lines and to access the operating system software and detect the internal state of the computer, It is functionally similar to and software-compatible with the PBI described above, The pin uses for the cartridge and the extension are as follows:
Present 30-pin cartridge connector Top side Pin Place Description RD4 A ROM present GND B Ground A4-A9 C-J Address lines A12 K Address line D3 L Data line D7 M Data line A11 N Address line A10 P Address line R/W R Processor read/write line PH12 S System clock line Bottom side Pin Place Description S4 1 Chip select line—$8000 to $9FFF (right slot address on the 800) A3 2 Address line A2 3 Address line A1 4 Address line A0 5 Address line D4 6 Data line D5 7 Data line D2 8 Data line D1 9 Data line D0 10 Data line D6 11 Data line S5 12 Chip select line—$A000 to $BFFF (left slot address on the 800) +5v 13 DC power supply RD5 14 ROM present CCTL 15 ROM bank control selection line
Looking at the cartridge slot from the back, the pins are as follows:
A B C D E F H J K L M N P R S ┌─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ │ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . │ │ │ │ │ │ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . │ └─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1. S4 A. RD4 2. A3 B. GND 3. A2 C. A4 4. A1 D. A5 5. A0 E. A6 6. D4 F. A7 7. D5 H. A9 8. D2 J. A9 9. D1 K. A12 10. D0 L. D3 11. D6 M. D7 12. S5 N. A11 13. +5v P. A10 14. RD5 R. R/W 15. CCTL S. B02
14-pin extension Top side Pin Place Description Res A Reserved IRQ B Interrupt request line HALT C ANTIC halt signal A13-15 D-F Upper three address lines GND H Ground Bottom side Pin Place Description EXSEL 1 External device select? RST 2 System RESET D1xx 3 Chip select at area $D1xx MPD 4 Math pack (FP) disable AUDIO 5 External audio input REF 6 Present cycle is a refresh cycle line +5v 7 Second dc power supply
Looking at the extension from the back, we see:
A B C D E F H ┌─────────────────────────────┐ │ . . . . . . . │ │ │ │ │ │ . . . . . . . │ └─────────────────────────────┘ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A. Reserved 1. EXSEL B. IRQ 2. RST C. HALT 3. D1XX D. A13 4. MPD E. A14 5. Audio F. A15 6. REF H. GND 7. +5v
There is no parallel bus on the 65XE; it was dropped by Atari since third-party manufacturers had not taken advantage of it.
The new graphics modes are 12, 13, 14, and 15 in BASIC; ANTIC modes 4, 5, 12 ($C), and 14 ($E), respectively. These have always been available internally, but BASIC programmers had to trick the OS to get at them.
GRAPHICS 12 is a four-color text mode (plus background). Each character on the screen is the same height as a GRAPHICS 0 character (8 scan lines), but only four pixels get displayed instead of eight. The screen has 20 lines (24 with GRAPHICS 12 + 16) and 4 lines of text, using 40 bytes of RAM per screen line.
GRAPHICS 13 is another four-color text mode (plus background), but this time the characters are double the size of GRAPHICS 0 characters (16 scan lines high), while only four pixels are displayed (the system interprets the character set by bit pairs rather than single bits; see below). The screen has 10 lines (12 with GRAPHICS 13 + 16), also using 40 bytes per screen line.
Since both GRAPHICS 12 and 13 display only four bits in each line of character definition, the color of the pixel displayed depends on the bit pair in the byte being addressed:
Bit Pair Color RAM Location 00 BAK 712 01 PF0 708 10 PF1 709 11 This depends on bit 7 of the byte. If bit 7 = 0, then use PF2 (at 710), else use PF 3 (at 711).
Note that each line in a character set definition (eight lines, one byte wide, form one character) can have different color combinations. Since bit pairs (one color clock) are displayed, the normal character set becomes unrecognizable. In order to use these modes, you should build a character set in which each character is half a letter and can be combined for display. Or build a 7 × 7 character set with a blank row and column between each character.
The characters displayed are not the full character set. They are only one half of the ATASCII set, depending on the value in location 756 ($2F4): 224 ($E0) for uppercase, 226 ($E2) for lowercase. When using GET or PUT operations in these modes, the lower seven bits (0-6) are used for character data (allowing a range from 0 to 127; $7F), while the high bit is the color modifier (see the table above).
GRAPHICS 14 is a two-color mode with a resolution of 160 pixels wide (half the horizontal distance of GRAPHICS 8) and 192 high (160 with text lines). Each screen line is one scan line high, compared with GRAPHICS 6 where each line is two scan lines (GRAPHICS 14 is sometimes called GRAPHICS 6-1/2). BAK and PF0 are the two-color registers; the first bit of a screen byte identifies the color.
GRAPHICS 15 has been made popular by many drawing and painting programs such as Datasoft’s Micropainter and both Koala’s and Atari’s drawing programs for their touch tablets, It is a four-color mode with a resolution of 160 across × 192 down (160 with text lines), each screen line being one scan line high. Colors are BAK, PF0-PF2; only the first two bits of a screen byte identify the byte color. It is sometimes called GRAPHICS 7-1/2.
Memory Used ─────────── Mode Lines Colors Split Screen Full Screen 12 40 × 20/24 5 1154 1152 13 40 × 10/12 5 664 660 14 160 × 160/192 2 4270 4296 15 160 × 160/192 4 8112 8138
Here are the pinouts on the 800 and XL/XE’s monitor jack (looking at the back of the unit):
* * * * * * * ******* * * * Audia output * 3 1 * Composite luminance * * * * Composite chroma * 5 4 * Composite video (not available * * on XL models) * 2 * * * Ground
The bank select location is 54017 ($D301). PORTB, now an output rather than the input byte it was on the 400/800 machines, uses bits 2-5 (corresponding to pins 2-5 on the PIA 6520 chip) to select which 16K bank is being accessed and whether or not the area is used for video (ANTIC) access or 6502 access. There is another 64K of RAM in the 130XE (not the 65XE) which is identical to the main bank in layout and control, but it can be accessed only in 16K banks at any one time. Of course, using a fast interrupt driven ML routine, you can change bits in PORTB to shunt between 16K banks as necessary.
When a bank is enabled for access, it appears through an “access window” in the main memory, at locations 16384-32767 ($4000-$7FFF, below the OS ROM or cartridge areas). If you enable bank switching, you cause the normal RAM in this area to be replaced by the bank you’ve chosen. Bit 4 is the CPU Bank Enable bit — CBE — and bit 5 is the Video Bank Enable bit — VBE. Bits 3 and 2 are the MSB and LSB of the secondary bank address, respectively.
You can configure the system to one of four modes: compatible with existing XL/XE software, CPU extended RAM, video extended RAM, and general extended RAM modes. In all cases, only the area in the access window is affected by the mode selection.
No synchronization between areas is required by the programmer; the system will know where the display area is by the bit settings in PORTB. This is important: Once you set the bits, you don’t have to worry about where the access will occur; the OS takes over and selects the right bank. If you intend to make use of more than one 16K block in the extended RAM, you’ll have to set and reset the bank selection bits as necessary, but not the CPE or VBE bits.
In CPU extended RAM mode, only the CPU accesses the extra memory. All ANTIC cycles operate in the main 64K memory. This means you can use the extended memory for programs and data, while using the main bank for display lists and screen data.
In the video extended RAM mode, all ANTIC references to the area $4000-$7FFF will be directed to the secondary bank; all CPU references will occur in the main bank. This allows programmers to access the entire RAM memory for programs and data in the main area, while locating display lists and screen data in the secondary bank.
In the extended RAM mode, both the CPU and ANTIC process in the second bank, exactly as if it were the main bank in compatibility mode (which is then not accessed at all). The normal state of the bits for either CPE or VBE is 1; secondary bank disabled. When set to 0, the access to the second bank is enabled. Here are the possible bit contigurations (M stands for main bank, E for extended or secondary bank):
Compatibility mode (only main bank enabled) Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 CPU accesses: ANTIC accesses: VBE CPE Bank selection 1 1 doesn’t matter M $4000-$7FFF M $4000-$7FFF CPU extended RAM mode Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 CPU accesses: ANTIC accesses: VBE CPE Bank selection 1 0 0 0 E $0000-$3FFF M $4000-$7FFF 1 0 0 1 E $4000-$7FFF M $4000-$7FFF 1 0 1 0 E $8000-$BFFF M $4000-$7FFF 1 0 1 1 E $C000-$FFFF M $4000-$7FFF Video (ANTIC) extended RAM mode Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 CPU accesses: ANTIC accesses: VBE CPE Bank selection 0 1 0 0 M $4000-$7FFF E $0000-$3FFF 0 1 0 1 M $4000-$7FFF E $4000-$7FFF 0 1 1 0 M $4000-$7FFF B $8000-$BFFF 0 1 1 1 M $4000-$7FFF E $C000-$FFFF General extended RAM Mode Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 CPU accesses: ANTIC accesses: VBE CPE Bank selection 0 0 0 0 E $0000-$3FFF E $0000-$3FFF 0 0 0 1 E $4000-$7FFF E $4000-$7FFF 0 0 1 0 E $8000-$BFFF E $8000-$BFFF 0 0 1 1 E $C000-$FFFF E $C000-$FFFF
To select which mode and bank you want to access in BASIC, use
POKE 54017, 193 + (MODE * 16) + (BANK * 4)
For MODE and BANK, chose the number below which represents the type and area at address:
MODE BANK No. 6502 ANTIC No. Address 0 Extd Extd 0 $0000-$3FFF 1 Main Exd 1 $4000-$7FFF 2 Extd Main 2 $8000-$BFFF 3 Main Main 3 $C000-$FFFF
Access to the extended memory is always through the bank $4000-$7FFF, so no matter what the address of the extended bank, you still PEEK and POKE at locations 16384-32767 ($4000-$7FFF), not the extended bank address.
DOS 2.5 includes a program called RAMDISK.SYS which, when the disk is booted, checks to see if you have a 130XE and, if so, creates a 64K memory disk (RAMdisk) out of the extended memory. (See the section on DOS 2.5.) The RAMdisk occupies the entire 64K extended block, so you cannot use the extra 64K for BASIC or other programs if you want to keep the RAMdisk intact.
The latest version of DOS (Disk Operating System) for the XL and XE computers is 2.5. It offers several advantages over the earlier versions (including the ill-received DOS 3.0), including dual-density formatting, new XIO formatting commands available from BASIC, a RAMDISK program for the 130XE, and greater compatibility with DOS 2.0. If you use DOS 3.0, I suggest you get a copy of 2.5 as soon as you can.
DOS 2.5 formats a track with 26 sectors instead of the 18 DOS 2.0 handles; this means a disk with 1010 sectors free instead of 707 (leaving 931 free sectors with DOS and DUP.SYS files on a disk). The 1050 (not the 810) drive can automatically sense which density the disk in the drive is using. DOS 2.0 can read a 2.5 disk but the additional sectors are invisible to it.
When you OPEN a disk from BASIC to get a directory read (see location 1792; $700 in the Addenda section), you normally use OPEN #1,6,0,"D:*.*". Now, if you use OPEN #1,7,0,"D:*.*", DOS will specify files which occupy disk sectors that can’t be accessed by 2.0 with angle brackets, like <RAMROM.ASM>. These files are invisible to DOS 2.0 when reading a directory; they can’t be loaded, nor do they show up in the directory.
Formatting the disk by the XIO command is enhanced. The usual method is XIO 254, #1,0,0,"D1:". This will format the disk, trying first for dual density, and if the drive doesn’t support it, formatting in single (2.0) density. XIO 253, #1,0,0,"D1:" formats a disk with single density only (a new option — P — has been added to the DOS menu to format in single density as well). XIO 253, #1,34,0,"D1:" will format a disk in dual density only.
DOS 2.5 includes a special program called RAMDISK.SYS. This loads up when the disk is booted and determines if your computer is a 130XE. If so, it runs a small program which creates a “disk drive” out of the 64K extended memory bank. The RAMdisk acts just like a real disk, except that it’s faster. It is formatted into 499 sectors and a directory and has the drive number D8:. DOS 2.5 supports drives 1-8, but is initialized to drives 1, 2, and 8, so if you have other drives, change location 1802 ($70A); that is, if you have three drives and the RAMdisk, POKE 1802, 135. All bits in location 1802 now represent possible drives.
When it runs, RAMDISK.SYS copies MEM.SAV and DUP.SYS to the RAMdisk, then modifies a location so that you call up DUP.SYS from the RAMdisk rather than D1:. This brings up DOS almost immediately when you leave BASIC. However, if you want to delete DUP.SYS from the memory drive and call it up from drive 1 as usual, type POKE 5439, ASC("1"), this points DOS back to the original drive. You can also delete MEM.SAV from D8: if you don’t need it.
Locations 1792-1812 ($700-$714) are loaded directly into RAM from the boot sector (sector 1) on a disk. Refer back to the section in the 400/800 memory map tar more explanation. These are from an article by Neil Harris in the Atari Explorer; they are locations Atari promises to support in the future:
Boot flag; always equals 0.
Number of sectors in the disk boot; three — the first three on the disk.
Boot load address; where DOS is loaded into memory; always 1792 ($700).
DOS initialization address; always 5440 ($1540).
JMP instruction to jump to the address where the boot program continues execution; 1812 ($714).
Maximum number of concurrently open files — usually three.
Drive allocation byte; one bit per drive.
Buffer allocation address for drives and files.
Reads zero if there is no DOS.SYS on disk, nonzero if present.
Points to first sector of the DOS.SYS file.
Number of displacement bytes to sector link bytes (last three); always 125 ($7D).
Address of the FMS (D:) handler table; 1995 ($7CB).
Boot program begins here.
BASIC SIO routines.
FMS disk handler routines.
Write verify flag; 80 ($50) turns it off, 87 ($57) turns it on.
FMS handler table. Has data in it different from 2.0 handler.
DOS initialization routine.
Start of the FMS file control blocks; first of eight.
128-byte buffer for a disk directory sector.
POKE with 49 (ASC("1")) to reroute DOS to call DUP.SYS from D1: rather than D8: when using the RAMdisk — you can then delete DUP.SYS and MEM.SAV from the RAMdisk for extra space. See location 1923 ($783) in the Addenda.
Start of permanently resident portion of DUP.SYS.
Entry to DUP.SYS’s routine to load binary files.
Used with SFLOAD.
Used with SFLOAD.
When you boot the Translator disk, use one of the commercial “fix” disks (such as FIXXL), or run Matt Ratcliff’s “ROM OS to RAM OS” program (Appendix 19), you turn your OS from ROM based to RAM based. This allows you to change it by POKEing directly into memory. When you use the Translator or the Allen MacroWare XL BOSS chip, you have the 400/800 operating system in memory instead of the XL/XE OS.
This section describes many changes which can be made to the 400/800 OS when in the XL/XE RAM. In all cases, Revision B OS is described since the Translator and Allen MacroWare don’t use the Revision A OS. These changes can be POKEd into memory if you have the Translator booted or the XL BOSS installed. For 400/800 owners, if you have the hardware for making your own PROMs or EPROMs, you can make these changes into the PROMs and replace them in your OS board. The same applies for the Newell Industries RamRod board.
I have tested and used both the Newell RamRod and the Allen MacroWare XL BOSS and consider them both excellent products and highly recommend them. Much of the following material was derived from their manuals.
You can change the character set directly by POKEing here rather than reserving space in memory for an altered set. See the section on character sets in the main memory map and 54017 ($D301). (XL/XE users can change this and the international set also.)
The interval for the keyboard repeat. The original value is 6; POKE with 3 to move the cursor twice as fast for repeating characters (XL/XE also).
To increase the cassette baud rate by almost one-third and reduce the time of the leader from 20 to 10 seconds, POKE the following:
POKE Address Value Hex 60294 00 $EB84, $00 low byte, write baud 60299 04 $EB8B, $04 high byte 61250 00 $EF42, $00 low byte, baud rate init routine 61255 04 $EF47, $04 high byte 61346 00 $EFA2, $00 baud rate open routine 61351 04 $EFA7, $04 high byte 61371 02 $EFBB, $02 leader time
Memo pad mode startup message; “ATARI COMPUTER - MEMO PAD (CR).”
BOOT ERROR message. This is at 50237 ($C43D) in the XL/XE.
Left margin default; initially 2.
Right margin default; initially at the maximum 39 ($27).
Key click sound, change these three bytes to 234 ($EA) to disable the key click sound completely.
You can also remove the click sound by changing the first byte of the routine here to 96 ($60; RTS).
The buzzer/bell time for warning sound prompts. Initially 127 ($7F), you can reduce it to any time; 63 ($3F) is half the time. This location also affects the key click sound time.
Default (startup) color value tables. These values are moved to the shadow registers 708-712 ($2C5-$2C8) on power-up or RESET. The screen startup is blue; to change it to black, POKE 65219 ($FEC3), 0.
The keyboard table; you can redefine the entire keyboard by POKEing here (see the XL/XE map section). One trick is to change the keyboard so that the cursor (arrow) keys work on pressing, and you have to press SHIFT and arrow to get -, =, +, and *, and CONTROL and arrow to get <up arrow>, <down arrow>, <left arrow>, and <right arrow>. Do this by:
POKE Address Value Hex 65284 30 $FF04, $1E 65285 31 $FF05, $1F 65292 28 $FF0C, $1C 65293 29 $FF0D, $1D 65348 43 $FF44, $2B 65349 42 $FF45, $2A 65356 45 $FF4C, $2D 65357 61 $FF4D, $3D 65412 92 $FF84, $5C 65413 94 $FF85, $5E 65420 95 $FF8C, $5F 65421 124 $FF8D, $7C
(XL/XE owners: Your keyboard definition table begins at 64337, so to use this modification, subtract 941 from the addresses given above.)
1200XL owners: You can use your function keys as cursor keys by POKE 65281, 30 ($FF01,$1E), POKE 65282, 31 ($FF02,$1F), POKE 65297, 28 ($FF11,$1C) and POKE 65298, 11 ($FF12,$1D).
XL/XE only: To make the HELP key a start/stop key equivalent to CONTROL-1, POKE here with 17 ($11). The HELP key returns a keycode value at 732 ($2DC) of 17 ($11) for normal use, 81 ($51) for SHIFT+HELP, and 145 ($91) for CONTROL+HELP.
The time delay for the repeat feature; initially 3; POKE with 1. See also 65516 (FFEC) below.
Key repeat delay. Initially 48 ($30); change to 15 ($0F). Do this in conjunction with the change at 65507 ($FFE3).
This is a version of the BASIC switcher routine used in a public domain program called “RamMaster,” available on the Gateway BBS, St. Louis, Missouri, used here with permission by its author, Matt Ratcliff. The program creates an AUTORUN.SYS file which prompts you to turn BASIC on and off; there’s no need to hold down the OPTION key when booting a disk. When you turn it off from DOS, you gain the 8K RAM it occupies; DOS takes advantage of this memory space for copy and disk duplication routines. Refer back to the XL/XE memory map for more information.
10 GRAPHICS 0:DIM A$(10):? "800XL BASIC SWITCHER" 15 PRINT "By Matthew Ratcliff 3/25/85" 20 PRINT :PRINT "GET DOS DISK READY AND PRESS RTN;" 25 INPUT A$ 30 TRAP 200:OPEN #1,8,0,"D:AUTORUN.SYS" 40 RESTORE 50 READ A:IF A<0 THEN 100 60 PUT #1,A:GOTO 50 100 CLOSE #1:PRINT "BASIC SWITCHER READY." 105 PRINT "PUT THIS FILE ON ALL YOUR 'BASIC'" 110 PRINT "PROGRAMMING DISKS.":PRINT 115 PRINT "SAVE THIS LOADER AS A BACKUP!" 120 END 200 PRINT "UNEXPECTED ERROR ";PEEK(195) 210 PRINT "AT LINE ";PEEK(186)+256*PEEK(187):END 1000 DATA 255,255,0,52,236,53,173,250,3,240,1 1005 DATA 96,32,160,53,76,34,52,184,176 1010 DATA 176,216,204,160,194,193,211,201,195 1015 DATA 160,211,247,233,244,227,232,229,242,155,4 1020 DATA 162,12,160,52,32,120,53,76,56,52,194 1025 DATA 249,160,205,225,244,170,210,225,244 1030 DATA 155,4,162,44,160,52,32,120,53,76,88 1035 DATA 52,80,114,101,115,115,32,35,32 1040 DATA 97,110,100,32,210,212,206,32,107,101 1045 DATA 121,58,155,4,162,66,160,52,32,120 1050 DATA 53,76,115,52,91,49,93,32,66,65,83 1055 DATA 73,67,32,160,207,206,160,160,155 1060 DATA 4,162,98,160,52,32,120,53,76,142,52,91 1065 DATA 50,93,32,66,65,83,73,67 1070 DATA 32,160,207,198,198,160,155,4,162,125 1075 DATA 160,52,32,120,53,32,203,53,201,50 1080 DATA 208,41,173,1,211,9,2,141,1,211,169 1085 DATA 192,133,106,32,160,53,76,187,52 1090 DATA 160,194,193,211,201,195,160,207,198 1095 DATA 198,160,155,4,162,174,160,52,32,120,53 1100 DATA 76,62,53,201,49,240,3,76,79,53,173,1,211 1105 DATA 41,253,141,1,211,169,160 1110 DATA 133,106,32,160,53,76,235,52,160,194 1115 DATA 193,211,201,195,160,207,206,160,29,155 1120 DATA 4,162,222,160,52,32,120,53,173,226,168 1125 DATA 201,96,208,48,76,31,53,82,69 1130 DATA 86,46,66,32,45,32,195,239,238,244,225,227 1135 DATA 244,160,193,212,193,210,201,160 1140 DATA 230,239,242,160,210,197,214,174,195 1145 DATA 160,161,155,4,162,252,160,52,32,120,53 1150 DATA 76,62,53,201,234,208,17,76,55,53,82,69 1155 DATA 86,46,67,155,4,162,48,160 1160 DATA 53,32,120,53,76,71,53,29,29,29,29,155 1165 DATA 4,162,65,160,53,32,120,53 1170 DATA 96,76,107,53,160,194,193,196,160,203 1175 DATA 197,217,253,32,32,32,80,82,69,83 1180 DATA 83,32,160,210,212,206,160,155,4 1185 DATA 162,82,160,53,32,120,53,32,203,53,76 1190 DATA 0,52,142,68,3,134,208,140,69,3,132,209 1195 DATA 160,0,140,72,3,140,73,3 1200 DATA 177,208,201,4,240,6,238,72,3,200,208 1205 DATA 244,169,11,162,0,141,66,3,76 1210 DATA 86,228,162,96,169,12,157,66,3,32,86,228 1215 DATA 162,96,169,3,157,66,3,169 1220 DATA 200,157,68,3,169,53,157,69,3,169,0 1225 DATA 157,75,3,169,28,157,74,3,76 1230 DATA 86,228,83,58,0,162,0,169,5,157 1235 DATA 66,3,169,0,157,68,3,169,4,157 1240 DATA 69,3,169,4,157,72,3,169,0,157 1245 DATA 73,3,32,86,228,173,0,4,96,226 1250 DATA 2,227,2,0,52,-1
The second program is a short version of the “RamMaster” also on the Gateway BBS; it turns your ROM OS into a RAM OS and traps RESET so that if you press it, it doesn’t jump back to ROM. When you press RESET, the routine leaves the block at 52224-53247 ($CC00-$CFFF) intact, so any altered character set you’ve loaded there will remain untouched. It also creates an AUTORUN.SYS file, so if you want it on the same disk as the BASIC switcher above, you’ll have to rename it (line 30). The RESET handler routine loads into page 6 at byte 1616 ($650). Both programs can be loaded trom DOS with the “L” command.
10 GRAPHICS 0:DIM A$(10):? "ROM TO RAM O/S HANDLER" 15 PRINT "BY Matthew Ratcliff 3/25/85" 20 PRINT :PRINT "GET DOS DISK READY AND PRESS RTN"; 25 INPUT A$ 30 TRAP 200:OPEN #1,8,0,"D:AUTORUN.SYS" 40 RESTORE 50 READ A:IF A<0 THEN 100 60 PUT #1,A:GOTO 50 100 CLOSE #1:PRINT "64K 'XL ROM->RAM O/S CONVERTER" 105 PRINT "AUTORUN.SYS FILE COMPLETE." 110 PRINT "BE SURE TO SAVE THIS LOADER" 115 PRINT "AS A BACKUP!":END 200 PRINT "UNEXPECTED ERROR "; 205 PRINT PEEK(195):PRINT "AT LINE ";PEEK(186)+256*PEEK(187) 210 END 1000 DATA 255,255,0,52,105,53,169,80,133,2 1005 DATA 133,216,169,6,133,3,133,217,165,9 1010 DATA 9,2,133,9,160,0,169,144,133,222,169 1015 DATA 52,133,223,173,60,53,133,214,177 1020 DATA 222,145,216,230,222,208,2,230,223 1025 DATA 230,216,208,2,230,217,198,214,208,236,76 1030 DATA 91,52,205,225,244,170,210,225,244,167 1035 DATA 243,160,210,207,205,173,190,210,193,205 1040 DATA 160,200,225,238,228,236,229,242,160,242 1045 DATA 229,225,228,249,174,155,4,162,56,160 1050 DATA 52,32,61,53,76,136,52,160,160,160,208 1055 DATA 210,197,211,211,160,167,210,197,211 1060 DATA 197,212,167,160,203,229,249,160,244 1065 DATA 239,160,229,238,225,226,236,229,174,160,160 1070 DATA 155,4,162,101,160,52,32,61,53,96 1075 DATA 169,80,133,2,169,6,133,3,165,9 1080 DATA 9,2,133,9,120,169,0,141,47,2,133 1085 DATA 16,141,0,212,141,14,210,141,14 1090 DATA 212,133,219,169,1,133,66,169,192 1095 DATA 133,217,169,204,133,218,160,0,240,81,169 1100 DATA 216,133,217,132,218,230,219,208,71 1105 DATA 169,128,133,16,141,14,210,169,64,141,14 1110 DATA 212,169,34,141,47,2,141,0,212,198 1115 DATA 66,88,162,96,169,12,157,66,3,32 1120 DATA 86,228,162,96,169,3,157,66,3,169 1125 DATA 83,141,0,4,169,58,141,1,4,169 1130 DATA 4,157,69,3,169,0,157,75,3,157 1135 DATA 68,3,169,28,157,74,3,76,86,228 1140 DATA 132,216,173,1,211,9,1,141,1,211 1145 DATA 177,216,170,173,1,211,41,254,141,1 1150 DATA 211,138,145,216,230,216,208,230,230 1155 DATA 217,165,218,197,217,208,222,165,219,240,135 1160 DATA 208,143,173,142,68,3,134,212,140 1165 DATA 69,3,132,213,160,0,140,72,3,140,73 1170 DATA 3,177,212,201,4,240,11,238,72,3 1175 DATA 208,3,238,73,3,200,208,239,169,11 1180 DATA 162,0,141,66,3,76,86,228,226,2,227 1185 DATA 2,0,52,-1
This small program “fixes” your Revision B BASIC (see above) by copying BASIC ROM to RAM and writing the correct bytes into the location. This brings your BASIC B up to BASIC C, without needing the ROM chips or cartridge to do so (I still recommend that you acquire a new Revision C ROM from Atari). This means your BASIC is also alterable, since it is in RAM now. Matt the wizard does it again. I suggest you get onto the Gateway BBS and download his programs if you haven’t already done so.
10 REM 800XL & 64K-600XL REV.B(UGS) 20 REM BASIC TO REV.C CONVERTER. 30 REM By Matthew J. W. Ratcliff 4/5/85 40 REM THIS LOADER WILL CREATE AN 50 REM AUTORUN.SYS FILE FOR YOU. 60 REM ADVISABLE TO MOVE DOWN RAMTOP 70 REM WHEN IN THE RAM/BASIC, SINCE 80 REM SOME ATARI GRAPHICS COMMANDS 90 REM WILL CLEAR RAM ABOVE RAMTOP. 100 REM (i.e. POKE 106,PEEK(106)-4:GR.0-6) 110 REM (i.e. POKE 106,PEEK(106)-16:GR.7-11) 120 RESTORE 130 GRAPHICS 0:DIM A$(10) 140 ? "GET DOS DISK READY FOR REV.B TO C" 150 ? "AUTORUN FILE AND PRESS RETURN KEY" 160 TRAP 220:INPUT A$ 170 OPEN #1,8,0,"D:AUTORUN.SYS" 180 READ A:IF A<0 THEN 200 190 PUT #1,A:GOTO 180 200 CLOSE #1:? "** ALL DONE **" 210 ? "SAVE THIS LOADER AS A BACKUP":? "JUST IN CASE!":END 220 ? "ERROR # ";PEEK(195);" AT LINE ";PEEK(186)+256*PEEK(187):END 1000 DATA 255,255,0,6,130,6,169,0,133,2 1010 DATA 169,6,133,3,173,250,3,240,1,96 1020 DATA 169,0,133,216,169,160,133,217,160,0 1030 DATA 173,1,211,41,253,141,1,211,177,216 1040 DATA 72,173,1,211,9,2,141,1,211,104 1050 DATA 145,216,230,216,208,228,230,217,165,217 1060 DATA 201,192,208,220,162,0,169,12,133,218 1070 DATA 160,0,189,95,6,133,216,232,189,95 1080 DATA 6,133,217,232,189,95,6,145,216,232 1090 DATA 198,218,208,232,165,9,9,2,133,9 1100 DATA 96,223,168,234,224,168,240,225,168,17 1110 DATA 226,168,234,41,187,0,243,191,0,244 1120 DATA 191,0,245,191,0,246,191,0,247,191 1130 DATA 0,248,191,0,249,191,0,226,2,227 1140 DATA 2,0,6,-1
This is an index by label and subject of the locations discussed in the XL/XE Addenda (Appendices 12-19). The numbers are decimal memory references, not pages.
ABUFPT 28-31 ACMI interrupt 50220 ACMISR 717, 728 ACMVAR 1005-1016 alternate character set 619 ATASCII 64329 BASIC 50337 BASIC bugs 43234 BASIC disabled 1016, 54017 BASICF 1016 BASIC revision test 43234 baud rate 64728 BBYTEA 719, 720 bitmap routines 63267 blackboard mode 58481 BMI 63267 BOOT ERROR 50237, 50750 BREAK key 49298 BRKKY 566, 567 buffer 63665 C: 58432 CARTCK 1003 cartridge 1003, 1018, 50217 CASINI 2,3 CASSBT 1002 cassette boot 50798 cassette handler 64728 CBC 63665 character set 619, 756 CHARSET1 54017, 57344-58367 CHARSET2 52224-52991 CHBAS 756 checksum 52054, 65395, 65426, 65518 CHLINK 1019, 1020 CHSALT 619 CIN 64728 CIO 58591 CKEY 1001 CMCMD 07 cold start 49864, 49866, 55296 COLINC 761 CONSOL 53279 Cont 64269 CRETRY 668 DERRF 1004 device polls 746 device registers 583, 746-749, 53504-53758 DIO 50851, 50867, 51002 disk boot 50571, 50619, 50729, 50747, 50777 disk sectors size 725 display lists 38868, 60957, 64708 DMASAV 733 DOS 1792-7419 DOS 3.0 3889 DOSINI 12, 13 DOSVEC 10, 11 DRETRY 701 DSCTLN 725, 726 DVSTAT 746-749 E: 50248$ 58368 FDL 64708 FINE 622 fine scrolling 620, 622 FKDEF 96, 97 floating point 55296 floating-point tables 56090 FP 55296-57343 function keys 96, 97, 64529 GBYTEA 719, 720 get byte 51151 GETCHAR 62026 GINTLK 1018 GPDVV 58511 hardware initialization 50394 hardware option jumpers 782 hardware ROM vectors 55296-55324 HDWSEL 53759 HELPFG 732 HELP key 732 HIBYTE 648 HIUSED 715, 716 HNDLOD 745 HWGET 53504 HWPUT 53504 HWRSET 53505 HWSTAT 53505 ICIO 58561 identity bytes 49152-49163, 65518-65529 IIN 58588 IMASK 651 interrupt handlers 49152-52223, 52992-53247 interrupt vectors 512-551, 50251 IRQ processing 49196, 49312 IRQ vector 65534 JMPERS 782 JVECK 652 K: 58400 keyboard click 731 keyboard definition 121, 122, 64337 keyboard delay 555, 709 keyboard disable 621 keyboard handler 62205, 63665, 64537 keyboard repeat 730 keyboard silence 731 keyboard tables 64260, 64337 KEYDEF 121, 122 KEYDIS 621 KEYREP 730 KGB 62205 KIR 64537 KRPDEL 729 LCOUNT 563 LEDs 621, 756, 54017 LNFLG 00 LOADAD 721, 722 loader routine 568, 581, 648, 713-724, 745 LOMEM 128, 129 LTEMP 54, 55 machine vectors 65530 memo pad mode 58481 memory management 54017 MINTLK 1017 modem flag 07 NEWADR 654, 655 NEWCOL 758, 759 NEWQOW 757 NGFLAG 01 NMIs 65530 NOCLIK 731 NTSC register 98 NTSC/PAL 60945 OPTION key 50330, 53279 OS 58368-65535 OS variables 1005-1016 OS vectors 65530-65535 OUTCHAR 62128 P: 58416 PADDL4-7 628-631 PALNTS 89 parallel bus handler 58511 parallel bus interrupts 585 parallel device 51468, 51507, 51631, 51658, 53504, 55296, 58511 PBI 55296-57243 PBI vectors 55296-55324 PBPNT 734 PBUFSZ 735 PDMSK 585 PDVMSK 583 PENTV 58502 peripheral handler 51753, 59193, 61116 PHE 61116 PHINIV 58508 PHR 59193 PHUNLV 58505 PIN 65177 PIO 51507 POKEY timers 49743, 49890, 49749 PORTB 20480, 54017 power-up vector 65532 PPTMPA 588 print buffer 734, 735 printer output 838 PTIMOT 788 PTRIG4-7 640-643 PUPBT 829-831 RECLEN 581 redefined function keys 96, 97 redefined keyboard 121, 122 RELADR 568, 569 RESET 9, 12, 13 RESET vector 65530 RLADDR 586, 587 ROM vectors (hardware) 55296-55324 ROWINC 760 RUNADR 713, 714 screen editor 1000 self-test 20480, 54017, 58496-58499 self-test enabled 54017 SELFTST 58481 SHPDVS 584 spares 590-618 SRTIMR 555 STICK2-3 634-635 STRIG2-3 646-647 SUPERF 1000 TEMP2 787 vector tables 58368-58508 VPIRQ 568, 569 VSFLAG 620 ZCHAIN 74, 75 ZHIUSE 717, 718 ZLOADA 723, 724
This is an index of the labels used to identify the various memory locations, registers, subroutines, and vectors in the Atari. The references are to decimal memory locations, not to page numbers. For an index by subject, see the next index section.
Label Location ADDCOR 782 ADRESS 100, 101 AF1 55878 AFP 55296 ALLPOT 53768 ANTIC 54272-54783 APPMHI 14, 15 ARGOPS 128, 129 ATACHR 763 ATAN 48759 ATRACT 77 AUDC1 53761 AUDC2 53763 AUDC3 53765 AUDC4 53767 AUDCTL 53768 AUDF1 53760 AUDF2 53762 AUDF3 53764 AUDF4 53766 BFENLO/HI 52, 53 BFLAG 1792 BITMSK 110 BIWTARR 1796, 1797 BLDADR 1794, 1795 BLDISP 1809 BLIM 650 BLKBDV 58481 BOOT 62159 BOOT? 9 BOOTAD 578, 579 BOTSCR 703 BPTR 61 BRCNT 1793 BRKKEY 17 BRKKY 566, 567 BRUN 10060 BSIO 1900 BSIOR 1906 BUFADR 21,22 BUFCNT 107 BUFRFL 56 BUFRLO/HI 50, 51 BUFSTR 108, 109 CART A 40960-49151 CART B 32768-40959 CARTRIDGES 32768-49151 CASBUF 1021-1151 CASENT 60292 CASETV 58432 CASFLG 783 CASINI 2, 3 CASORG 61249-61666 CASSBT 75 CAUX1 572 CAUX2 573 CBAUDL/H 750, 751 CCOMND 571 CDEVIC 570 CDTMA1 550, 551 CDTMA2 552, 553 CDTMF3 554 CDTMF4 556 CDTMF5 558 CDTMV1 536, 537 CDTMV2 538, 539 CDTMV3 540, 541 CDTMV4 542, 543 CDTMV5 544, 545 CFB 570-573 CH 764 CH1 754 CHACT 755 CHACTL 54273 CHAR 762 CHARSET 57344-58367 CHBAS 756 CHBASE 54281 CHKSNT 59 CHKSUM 49 CHKSUN 65528 CIOINT 58534 CIOINV 58478 CIOORG 58434-59092 CIOV 58454 CIREAD 58729 CIRTN 58907 CIX 242 CKEY 74 CLMJMP 6418 COLAC 114, 115 COLBK 53274 COLCRS 85, 86 COLDST 580 COLDSV 58487 COLINC 122 COLOR 0-4 708-712 COLPF 0-3 53270-53273 COLPM 0-3 53266-53269 COLRSH 79 COMENT 58941 COMPUT 60583 CONSOL 53279 COS 48561 COUNTR 126, 127 CPYFIL 9080 CRETRY 54 CRITIC 66 CRSINH 752 CSOPIV 58493 CSTAT 648 CTIA 53248-53503 DAUX1/2 778, 779 DBSECT 577 DBUF 7668 DBUFLO/HI 772, 773 DBYTLO/HI 776, 777 DCB 768-779 DCOMND 770 DDEVIC 768 DDMG 10690 DEGFLG 251 DELFIL 8649 DELTAC 119, 120 DELTAR 118 DFLADR 1810, 1811 DFLAGS 576 DFLINK 1807, 1808 DFMCLS 2837 DFMDDC 2983 DFMGET 2751 DFMOPN 2219 DFMPUT 2508 DFMSDH 1995 DFMSTA 2817 DFSFLG 1806 DIGRT 241 DINDEX 87 DINI 62334 DINIT 60906 DINT 2016 DIRLST 8505 DISKINV 58451 DISKIV 58448 DLISTL/H 54274, 54275 DMACTL 54272 DMASK 672 DMENU 7951-8278 DOBOOT 62189 DOPEN 62454 DOS 5440 DOSINI 12, 13 DOSOS 8309 DOSVEC 10, 11 DPFM 11528 DRAW 64764 DRETRY 55 DRKMSK 78 DRVBYT 1802 DSKFMS 24, 25 DSKIF 60912 DSKORG 60906-61047 DSKTIM 582 DSKUTL 26, 27 DSPFLG 766 DSTAT 76 DSTATS 771 DTIMLO 774 DUNIT 769 DUNUSE 775 DUPFLG 5533 DVSTAT 746-749 EDITRV 58368 EEXP 237 EGETCH 63038 ENDFMS 5377 ENDPT 116, 117 ENDSTAR 142, 143 EOUTCH 63140 ERRFLG 575 ERRNO 73, 4789-4816 ERRSAVE 195 ESCFLG 674 ESIGN 239 EXP 56768 EXP10 56780 FADD 55910 FASC 55526 FCB 4993-5120 FCHRFLG 240 FDIV 56104 FDSCHAR 3850 FEOF 63 FILDAT 765 FILDIR 5121 FILFLG 695 FLD0P 56717 FLD0R 56713 FLD1P 56732 FLD1R 56728 FLPTR 252, 253 FMOVE 56758 FMUL 56027 FMZSPG 67-73 FNDCODE 3742 FPI 55762 FPOINT 55296-57393 FPSCR 1510-1515 FPSCR1 1516-1535 FPTR2 254, 255 FRE 218-223 FREQ 64 FRESECT 4293 FR0 212-217 FR1 224-229 FR2 230-235 FRX 236 FST0P 56747 FST0R 56743 FSUB 55904 FTYPE 62 GETSECTOR 4358 GLBABS 736-739 GPRIOR 623 GRACTL 53277 GRAFM 53265 GRAFP 0-3 53261-53264 GTIA 53248-53503 HARDI 62081 HATABS 794-831 HITCLR 53278 HOLDCH 124 HOLD1 81 HOLD2 671 HOLD3 669 HOLD4 700 HOLD5 701 HPOSM 0-3 53252-53255 HPOSP 0-3 53248-53251 HSCROL 54276 ICAX1Z 42 ICAX2Z 43 ICAX3Z/4Z 44, 45 ICAX5Z 46 ICAX6Z 47 ICBALZ/HZ 36, 37 ICBLLZ/HZ 40, 41 ICCOMT 23 ICCOMZ 34 ICDNOZ 33 ICHIDZ 32 ICPTLZ/HZ 38, 39 ICSTAZ 35 IFP 55722 INBUFF 243, 244 INISAVE 6044, 6045 INITAD 738, 739 INITIO 6518 INSDAT 125 INTEMP 557 INTINV 58475 INTORG 59093-59715 INTRVEC 522, 523 INVFLG 694 IOCB0 832-847 IOCB1 848-863 IOCB2 864-879 IOCB3 880-895 IOCB4 896-911 IOCB5 912-927 IOCB6 928-943 IOCB7 944-959 IOCBS 832-959 IRQEN 53774 IRQST 53774 ISRDON 6630 ISRODN 60048 ISRSIR 6691, 60177 ISRTD 60113 KBCODE 53769 KBDORG 62436-65535 KEYBDV 58400 KEYDEL 753 KGETC2 63197 KGETCH 63202 LBFEND 1535 LBPR1 1406 LBPR2 1407 LBUFF 1408-1535 LDFIL 10522 LDMEM 6457 LINBUF 583-622 LINE 7588 LINZBS 0, 1 LISTDIR 3501 LKFIL 10608 LMARGN 82 LOADFLG 5535 LOG 57037 LOG10 57041 LOGCOL 99 LOGMAP 690-693 LOMEM 128, 129 LPENH 564 LPENV 565 LMTR 6432 M0PF-M3PF 53248-53251 M0PL-M3PL 53256 53259 MEMFLG 6046 MEMLO 743, 744 MEMSAV 10138 MEMTOP 144, 145, 741, 742 MLTTMP 102, 103 MONORG 61667-62435 MWRITE 5958 NEWCOL 97, 98 NEWROW 96 NMIEN 54286 NMIRES 54287 NMIST 54287 NOCKSM 60 NSIGN 238 OLDADR 94, 95 OLDCHR 93 OLDCOL 91,92 OLDROW 90 OPT 5534 OS 55296-65535 OSRAM 62100 OUTBUFF 128, 129 P0PF-P3PF 53252-53255 P0PL-P3PL 53260-53263 PACTL 54018 PADDL 0-7 624-631 PAGE ONE 256-511 PAGE SIX 1536-1791 PAGE THREE 768-1023 PAGE TWO 512- 767 PAGE ZERO 0-255 PAL 53268 PBCTL 54019 PBPNT 29 PBUFSZ 30 PCOLR 0-3 704-707 PENH 54284 PENV 54285 PIA 54016-54271 PIRQ 59123 PIRQQ 65470 PLYARG 1504 PLYEVL 56640 PMBASE 54279 PNMI 59316 POKEY 53760-54015 POKMSK 16 PORTA 54016 PORTB 54017 POT 0-7 53760-53767 POTGO 53771 PRINTV 58416 PRIOR 53275 PRNBUF 960-999 PRNORG 61048-61248 PTABW 201 PTEMP 31 PTIMOT 28 PTRIG 0-7 636-643 PWRUP 61733 RADFLG 251 RAM 0-49151 RAMLO 4, 5 RAMSIZ 740 RAMTOP 106 RANDOM 53770 RBLOKV 58490 RDDIR 4206 RDNXTS 4111 RDVTOC 4235 RECVDN 57 RENFIL 9783 RESET 61723 RMARGN 83 ROM 49152-65535 ROWAC 112, 113 ROWCRS 84 ROWINC 121 RTCLOK 18, 19, 20 RUNAD 736-737 RUNSTK 142, 143 SABYTE 1801 SASA 1804, 1805 SAVADR 104, 105 SAVFIL 12078 SAVIO 790 SAVMSC 88, 89 SCRENV 58384 SCRFLG 699 SCROLL 64428 SDLSTL 560, 561 SDMCTL 559 SEND 60011 SENDEV 58472 SERIN 53773 SEROUT 53773 SETUP 4452 SETVBL 59666 SETVBV 58460 SFDIR 3873 SFLOAD 5540 SHFAMT 111 SHFLOK 702 SIN 48551 SIOINV 58469 SIOORG 59716-60905 SIOV 58457 SIZEM 53260 SIZP 0-3 53256-53259 SKCTL 53775 SKREST 53770 SKSTAT 53775 SOUNDR 65 SPARE 563, 568, 569, 581, 651-655, 713-735, 745, 757-761, 1000-1020, 1152-1279 SQR 48869 SRTIMR 555 SSFLAG 767 SSKCTL 562 STACK 256-511 STACKP 792 STARP 140, 141 STATUS 48 STCAR 9986 STICK 0-3 632-635 STIMER 53769 STMCUR 138, 139 STMTAB 136, 137 STOPLN 186, 187 STRIG 0-3 644-647 SUBTMP 670 SWPFLG 123 SYSVBL 59345 SYSVBV 58463 TABMAP 675-689 TEMP 80, 574 TEMP1 786, 787 TEMP2 788 TEMP3 789 TESTVER2 10483 TIMER1 780, 781 TIMER2 784, 785 TIMFLG 791 TINDEX 659 TMPCOL 697, 698 TMPLBT 673 TMPROW 696 TMPX1 668 TRAMSZ 6 TRIG 0-3 53264-53267 TSTAT 793 TSTDAT 7 TXTCOL 657, 658 TXTMSC 660, 661 TXTOLD 662-667 TXTROW 656 ULFIL 10648 VBREAK 518, 519 VCOUNT 54283 VCTABL 58496 VDELAY 53276 VDSLST 512, 513 VECTOR TBL 58368-58477 VIMIRQ 534, 535 VINTER 516, 517 VKYED 520, 521 VNDT 132, 133 VNTP 130, 131 VPRCED 514, 515 VSCROL 54277 VSERIN 522, 523 VSEROC 526, 527 VSEROR 524, 525 VTIMR1 528, 529 VTIMR2 530, 531 VTIMR4 532, 533 VVBLKD 548, 549 VVBLKI 546, 547 VVTP 134, 135 WARMST 8 WARMSV 58484 WBOOT 10201 WMODE 649 WRTDOS 4618 WRTNXS 3988 WSYNC 54282 WTBUR 2591 XCONT 1798-1800 XDELETE 3122 XFORMAT 3352 XITVBV 58466 XLOCK 3196 XMTDON 58 XNOTE 3331 XPOINT 3258 XRENAME 3033 XUNLOCK 3203 ZBUFP 67, 68 ZDRVA 69, 70 ZFR0 55876 ZF1 55878
This is an index by subject. The references are to decimal memory locations, not to page numbers. For an index to the location and routine labels, see the previous index.
Subject Location ANTIC direct memory access (DMA) 559, 54272 interrupts 512, 513 mode numbers 87 P/M graphics 559, 54272 ROM 54272 - 54783 Attract mode 77 - 79 BASIC array table 140, 141 blackboard mode 58481 cartridge 40960 - 49151 error code, line 186, 187, 195 Floating Point routines 48549 - 49145 GOTO, GOSUB 142, 143 graphics modes 87 jump to DOS 10, 11 line numbers 136, 137 memory pointers 128, 129, 144, 145, 740 - 744 OPERATOR list 42509 page zero 128 - 209 program 14, 15, 136 - 139 program end 14, 15, 144, 145 runtime stack 142, 143 stack 256 - 511 statement pointer, table 136 - 139 stopped line 186, 187 string table 140, 141 TOKEN list 42159 variable name, value tables 130 - 135 Blackboard mode entry point 58481 start vector 10, 11 BOOT cassette 9, 12, 75 disk boot initialization 12, 13 disk boot routine 4, 5, 62159, 62189 DOS vector 9 success flag 9 system lockup 9 BREAK key disable 16, 53774 enable 16, 53774 flag 17, 53774 forced 53775 interrupt 16, 53774 restored 16, 53774 shadow register 16, 53774 status 17, 48 vector 566, 567 Buffers cassette 1021 - 1151 command frame 570 - 573 data 50 - 53, 56 device (SIO data) 772, 773 line 30, 583 - 622 printer 29, 960 - 999 ZIOCB 36, 37, 40, 41 Cartridges A (left) cartridge 40960 - 49151 B (right) cartridge 32768 - 40959 BASIC; see A cartridge test for presence 6, 7, 61845 Cassette baud rate 750, 751 beep count 64, 65 boot 2, 3, 9, 74, 75 buffer 61, 1021 - 1151 buffer size 650 buzzer 61530 end of file 63 handler routines 61249 - 61666 handler vector 58432 initialization vector 2, 3 inter-record gap 62 load 2, 3 mode 649, 783 motor control 54018 OPEN for input 58493 read block entry 58490 record size 1021 run address 10, 11, 12, 13 status register 648 voice track 53775 Characters ATASCII 763, 57344 auto repeat 764 bit mapping 57344 blinking text 548, 549, 755 character sets 756, 57344 - 58367 character set address 756, 54281 colors 756 control codes 766 control key 702, 764 control register 755 cursor inhibit 752 hardware code 764 internal code 762, 764 inverse 694 invisible inverse 755 last character read, written 763 logic processing 124 mode 755, 54273 move set to RAM 756 printer output 31 prior character code 754 ROM routines 63038 - 63196, 63202 screen location 87 shadow 756 shift key 702 tests 65470 translation of code 57344 under cursor 93 upside down 512, 513, 755, 54273 Checksum 49, 59, 60 CIO command 23 IOCBs 832 - 959 utility initialization 58478 variables 43 vector 58454 Clock attract mode 77 - 79 realtime 18, 19, 20 serial clock lines 53775 sound use 53768 Coldstart cassette boot 9, 74 disk boot 9 entry point 58487 flag 580 powerup 61733 Color attract mode 77 - 79 default values 712 GTIA registers 53266 - 53274 player/missile shadows 704 - 707 playfield shadows 708 - 712 rotate 77, 703 screen mode 87 Command frame buffer (CFB) 570 - 573 Console keys cassette boot 74 Controller jacks 54016, 54017 CTIA see GTIA Cursor advance 85 character under 93, 125 column 85, 86 current position 84 - 86, 94, 95 end of line 125 graphics 90 - 92 inhibit (disable) 752 LOCATE 85, 86 logical line 99 opaque, transparent 755, 54273 out of range error 87 previous position 90 - 92 row 84 tab width 201 text window 85, 86, 123 Device buffer 772, 773 byte transfer 776, 777 command 770 Device Control Block (DCB) 768 - 779 drivers (adding) 806 error status 746 handler address table 794 - 831 handler routines 58534 - 59092 handler vectors 768 - 831 retries 55 status registers 746 - 749 771 timeout value 747 vector tables 58368 - 58447 ZIOCB number 33 Direct Memory Access (DMA) graphics control 53277 ROM 54272 shadow 559 Disk (see also DOS) beep during I/O 65 boot 9 - 13, 74, 75 boot address 578, 579 boot continuation 4, 5 boot routine 62159, 62189 buffer 21, 22, 1802 flags 576, 577 FMS page zero 67 - 73 FMS pointer 24, 25 handler commands 778 handler routines 60906 - 61047 handler vector 58448, 58451 initialization address 12, 13, 738, 739 records open 1801 retries 54 run address 736 - 739 start vector 10, 11 timeout 582 utilities 26, 27 vector 10, 11 verify routine 1913 Display handler (see also Characters, Screen) logical line map 690 - 693 memory 14, 15 pixel mask 672 RAM 656 - 703 registers 76, 80, 81, 99 - 105, 107 - 127 routines 62454 Text window 656 - 667 vector 58384 Display List address 560, 561 54274, 54275 enable 559 entries 81 instructions 559 - 561 interrupts 512, 513, 560, 561, 54286, 54287 location 560, 561, 54274 lowest address 14, 15 reserving memory 106 ROM tables 65093 screen mode 87 scrolling 54276, 54277 size 88, 89 vertical line count 54283 DOS (see also Disk) boot address 578, 579 boot record 1792 buffers 6780 - 7547, 5121 - 5440, 7588 - 7923 burst I/O 2952 - 2773 drives in system 1802 DUP.SYS RAM 5440 - 13062 filename change 3818, 3822 files reserved 1801 FMS RAM 1792 - 5377 initialization 12, 13, 738, 739 run address 736 - 737 start vector 9 - 11 wildcard character 3783 DRAW command color of line 763 cursor 90 - 92 endpoint of line 84 - 86, 96 - 98 flag 695 GR.0 87 ROM routines 64764 screen mode 87 DUP.SYS load 10,11 Errors BASIC 186, 187, 195 device 746 disk I/O 73 SIO 575 ESC (Escape) key control codes without 766 flag 674 FILL command (see also DRAW) color of fill area 765 color of line 763 endpoint of line 84 - 86, 96 - 98 flag 695 Floating Point BASIC ROM 48549 - 49145 degree or radians flag 251 page zero 210 - 255 pointers 252 - 255 RAM page five 1406 - 1535 registers 212 - 217, 224 - 229 ROM (OS) 55296 - 57343 trig functions 251 FMS page zero buffer 67 - 73 pointer 24, 25 RAM 1792 - 5377 Graphics (see also player/missiles) display mode 87 DRAW, DRAWTO, FILL 85, 86, 96 - 98 IOCB 928 - 943 line plotting 112 - 122 memory use 88, 89, 106 player, missile shapes 53261 - 53265 row and column plotting 112 - 122 screen memory 14, 15, 123, 126, 127 scroll 54276, 54277 tab width 201 XIO commands 96 - 98 GTIA collisions 53252 examples 623 mode selection 87, 623 ROM 53248 - 53503 stick triggers 53264 - 53267 test 623 text window 87, 623 Handlers interrupt handlers 59093 - 59715 RESET 794 ROM routines 58534 - 59092 Interrupts BREAK key disabled 16 BREAK key vector 566, 567 Display List 512, 513 enabled 16, 53774 handler routines 59093 - 59715 IRQ 16, 514- 535, 53774, 59123, 59126 NMI 512, 513, 54286, 59316 PIA (peripheral) 54018, 54019 POKEY 16, 53774 RAM 512 - 535, 566, 567 serial 16 status request 53774 timer 16 VBLANK 546 - 549, 54286, 58460 - 58468, 59345 - 59715 Inverse characters flag 694 IOCB graphics screen 928 - 943 LIST, LOAD, LPRINT 944 - 959 move 58577 page zero 32 - 47 RAM 832 - 959 screen editor 832 - 847 IRQ Break key vector 566, 567 service routines 59123 - 59315 vectors 514 - 535 Jiffies, jiffy 18 - 20 Joystick see Stick Keyboard code 764, 53769 console keys 53279 control key flag 702, 53769 controller 54016 delay flag 753 display flag 766 enable debounce, scanning 562, 53775 escape key flag 674 handler routines 63197 - 65535 handler vector 58400 interrupts 16, 53774 inverse toggle 694 option, select, start keys 53279 shift key flag 702, 53769 start, stop flag 767 status 76 synchronization 54282 timer delay 555 Light pen horizontal value 564, 54284 vertical value 565, 54285 Line bit map 690 - 693 buffer 583 - 622 cursor 99 logical line 83 margins 83 plotting 112 - 122, 126 screen editor 107 tabs 201, 675 - 689 Luminance attract mode 77 - 79 Machine language page six 1536 - 1791 techniques 88 Margins editing 83 initialization 82, 83 left 82 right 83 scrolling 83 Memory see RAM Monitor handler routines 61667 - 62435 Non-Maskable Inter- rupts (NMI) DLI 560, 561, 54286 reset register 54287 service routines 59316 - 59715 status 54287 VBLANK 546 - 549, 54286 vectors 512, 513 Operating system character set 57344 - 58367 Floating Point 55296 - 57343 handlers 58534 - 65535 ROM 55296 - 65535 vectors 58368 - 58533 Paddles see Pots Page zero BASIC use 128 - 209 buffer 21, 22 Floating Point use 210 - 255 FMS registers 67 - 73 IOCB 32 - 47 RAM 0 - 255 Peripherals controllers 54018, 54019 interrupts 53744 ports 54016, 54017 PIA ROM 54016 - 54271 stick 54016, 54017 paddle (pot) triggers 54016, 54017 ports 54016 - 54019 Player/Missile Graphics (PMG) character base 54279 collision clear 53278 collision detection 53248 - 53263 color registers 703 - 707 disable, enable 559, 53277 DMA 54272 fifth player 623, 53275 graphic shape 53261 - 53265 horizontal movement 53248 horizontal position 53248 - 53255 location 54279 memory reservation 54279 movement 53248 multicolor 623, 53275 overlap 623, 53275 priority 623, 53275 resolution (line) 559, 54272 screen boundaries 53248 size, width 53256 - 53260, 54279 vertical delay 53276 vertical motion 53248 Playfield enable 559 priority 623, 53275 size 559 PLOT screen mode 87 POKEY interrupts 16, 514 - 535 pots 53760 - 53767 ROM 53760 - 54015 Polynomials random numbers 53770 sound dividers 53761, 53768 Pots (paddles) fast scan enable 562, 53775 POKEY registers 53760 - 53767 port state read 53768 shadows 624 - 631 start read sequence 53771 trigger latch 53277 triggers 636 - 643, 54016 values 624 Powerup RAM size 6, 740 warmstart 8 PRINT screen mode 87 Printer buffer 29, 30, 960 - 999 character output 31 handler routines 61048 - 61248 handler vector 58416 IOCB use 944 sideways printing 30 status 28, 30 timeout 28 Priority ROM 53275 shadow 623 RAM clear memory 88, 89, 106 free memory, bottom 743, 744, 1792 free memory, top 741 742 monitor 0, 1 pointers 4, 5, 15, 128, 129 protected area (page six) 1536 - 1791 reserving 106, 743, 744 RAM top 106, 740 - 742 screen 88, 89 scrolling 699 size 106, 740 test 4 - 7 vector table 58496 Random numbers poly counters 53768 register 53770 RESET coldstart 580 DOS 10, 11 handler routine 61723 handler tables 794 interrupt 54286 lockup 9 margins 83 warmstart 8, 58484 Retry command frame 54 device 55 Screen (See also Cursor) bit mapping 110 boundaries 53248 buffer 107 clear memory 88, 89 clear screen 88 color clocks 672 control codes 766 GRAPHICS modes 87 - 89, 106 handler vector 58368 IOCB use 832, 928 line buffer 583 - 622 logical line map 690 - 693 lowest address 14, 15, 88, 89 memory restrictions 741, 742 memory use 88 mode 87 page zero RAM 80 - 120 PAL compatible 53268 pixel justification 111 pixel mask 672 rows 703 save routines 88, 89 screen modes 560, 561 scrolling 84, 89, 106, 699, 767, 54276, 54277, 64428 size 76, 88, 89, 672 split screen 123 TAB map 675 - 689 text rows 703 vectors 800, 803, 58368, 58384 vertical line counter 54283 wait synchronization 54282 Serial port control 562, 53775 data port 790 input/output 16, 53773 interrupts 16, 53774 reset status 53770 shadow 562 status 53775 SIO checksum 49 command frame buffer 570 - 573 data buffer 50 - 53, 56 Device Ccntrol Block (DCB) 768 - 779 disk flags 576, 577 error flag 575 flags 56 - 60 interrupt handler 58475 interrupts 514 - 527 routines 59716 - 60905 send enable 58472 stack pointer 792 status 48 timeouts 28 transmission flags 55 - 60 utility initialization 58469 vector 58457 Software timers 536 - 545 Sound audio control 53761 - 53768 audio frequency 53760 - 53768 beeps 64, 65 buzz 61530 cassette buzzer 61530 clock frequency 53768 console register 53279 CTRL-2 buzzer 66 distortion 53761 filters 53768 I/O beeps 65 keyboard speaker 53279 margins 83 octave range 53768 poly counters 53761 Stack page one 256 - 511 runtime 142, 143 Status device 747 display 76 printer timeout 28 SIO 48 ZIOCB 35 Stick (joystick) attract mode 77 PIA registers 54016, 54017 read routines 632 shadows 632 - 635 trigger latch 53277 triggers 644 - 647 values 632 Tabs comma spaces 201 stop map 675 - 689 Text window address 660, 661 cursor 123, 656 - 658 GTIA 87 margins 82, 83 plot 87 rows available 703 screen mode 87, 659 scrolling 699 tab width 201 Timeouts baud rate correction 791 device 748 disk 582 printer 28 storage 48 value 28 Timers attract mode 77 baud rate 780 - 782, 784 - 787 critical code 66 interrupt enable 16, 53774 jump vectors 550 - 553 POKEY (hardware) 16, 528 - 533, 53768 realtime clock 18 - 20 repeat 555 start hardware 53769 suspended 66 system (software) 536 - 558 VBLANK 66 vectors 550 - 558 Transmission flags 56 - 60 Triggers (see Pots, Sticks) C/GTIA registers 53264 - 53267 latches 53277 paddle (pot) 636 - 643 PIA registers 54016, 54017 stick (joystick) 644 - 647 Variables assign values 134 list 132 name table 130 - 133 statement table 136, 137 string and array table 140, 141 value table 134, 135 VBLANK attract mode 77 - 79 clock 18 - 20 critical section 66 entry point 58463 exit 58466 interrupts 546 - 549, 54286 key delay 753 set timers 18, 58460 timer value 0, 1 Vectors cassette handler 58432 CIO 58454 command 23 device handlers 794 - 831, 58368 - 58477 disk 10, 11 disk handler 58448, 58451 display handler 58384 Display List interrupt 512, 513 keyboard handler 58400 printer handler 58416 screen editor 58368 warm start 8, 54287 Warmstart entry point 58484 flag 8 NMI check 8, 54287 vector 8, 58484